Transmigration in Indonesia

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  • Created by: Bella B
  • Created on: 09-01-16 17:03
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  • Facts about Indonesia!
    • A collection of just over 17,000 islands between the Indian and Pacific Ocean
    • Population of 238 million making it the world’s 4th most populous country.
    • Great variation between the islands with many religions, cultures and lifestyles existing within the country
    • Transmigration in  INDONESIA
      • Whats the problem?
        • Throughout the 1900’s the islands of Java and Bali were very overcrowded. Java was the world’s most crowded island (overpopulation).
        • These 2 islands exhibited all the qualities of an overpopulated area. The people lived in poverty with few resources and few opportunities.
        • Plantations were being set up on these islands which needed a workforce.
        • In contrast the islands of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku and West Papua were sparsely populated.
      • Economic problems
        • Seen as an economic disaster. Each transmigrant cost US$7,000 which caused Indonesia great national debt
      • Social problems
        • There have been violent conflicts between migrants and indigenous people.
        • Made virtually no dent in the population pressures in Java
        • Rather than stop poverty, the scheme just moved poverty from Bali and Java to the outer islands
          • Migrants were actually worse off because of poor planning, poor access to markets, neglect of soil and lack of water.
        • Settlers violated customary land rights of natives
        • Allegations that the resettlement was done to control indigenous populations.
      • Environmental Problems
        • New settlements were built in areas previously not touched by humans
        • Mass overgrazing destroyed the soil in many areas.
        • Big environmental issues, with much rainforest being destroyed (Indonesia has 10% of the world’s rainforest)
      • So whats happeneing now?
        • Funding is decreasing with more money being spent on improving conditions for those who have already moved.
        • This is being encouraged by the World Bank and IMF who hope that the demand for labour will increase, fuelling yet more transmigration.
        • Forced transmigration has stopped.
        • There is massive unsustainable exploitation of resources in Indonesia to pay for this scheme (logging, mining, oil palm, industrial shrimp farming).
      • So what happened at the beginning?
        • From 1929 onwards the government provided transportation for people wishing to migrate to less populated islands (economic migration). Peasants who lost their homes due to development were also moved (forced migration)
        • The program continues today and during it’s peak years (1979 – 84) 2.5 million people moved.
        • In some parts of Indonesia, migrants represent 60% of the population.
        • The project was funded by the World Bank for many years.
        • In addition they were provided with a house, some farm land and equipment as well as a living allowance for the first 18 months.


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