Unit 1: Threatened UK Habitats - Chalk Grassland

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  • Threatened UK Habitats - Chalk Grassland
    • Creation
      • Woodland cleared to create farmland from the Stone Age onwards
      • Soil erosion stopped arable farming
      • Sheep grazing has protected the remaining soil but prevented ecological succession establishing woodland again
    • Key Features
      • Plants e.g. cowslips, monkey orchids
      • Chalkhill blue butterfly
      • Birds e.g. curlew, skylark
    • Threats
      • Intensive farming e.g. ploughing and fertiliser use
      • Urban expansion and road building
      • Abandoment of unprofitable sheep farming - leads to secondary succession of scrub woodland
      • 'Improvement' of grassland using fertilisers, pesticides and re-seeding
    • Conservation Measures
      • Maintaining grazing
      • Reducing fertiliser and pesticide use
      • Shrub clearance


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