AQA Environmental Science Unit 2 The physical environment

AQA Environmental Science Unit 2 The physical environment

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3.2.1 ­ The
Atmosphere
Objectives Notes
1. The composition of the The
atmospher
e i
s a
tur
bul
ent
,
gaseous
envel
ope
that
sur
rounds
the
planet
and
consi
sts
of
sever
al
layer
s,
the
most
si
gni
fi
cant
f
or
li
fe
on
atmosphere Eart
h bei
ng t
he t
ropospher
e and
str
atospher
e whi
ch
are
essent
ial
f
or
li
fe
for
pr
otect
ion
fr
om
sol
ar
radi
ati
on,
gas
resour
ces
and
the
tr
ansf
er
A
consi
der
ati
on
of
the of
ener
g y
and wat
er
around t
he
globe.
composit
ion
of
the The
nor
mal
per
cent
ages
of
the
mai
n gases
in
the
atmospher
e
at
mo sphere
and t
he Ni
tr
ogen
­ 78%
U sed
in
prot
eins
pr
ocesses which
inf
luence Oxygen
­ 21%
U sed
in
aer
obi
c r
espi
rat
ion
l
i
fe on
Earth
Car
bon
Dioxi
de
0.038%
U s
e d
in
phot
osynt
hesi
s
The
nor
mal
per
cent
ages
of
Rar
e gases
(combi
ned)
1%
t
he main
gases
in
the
Wat
er
vapour
Var
iabl
e,
up
to
4%
Wat
er
in
w at
er
cycl
e di
str
ibut
ed
in
atmospher
e
at
mo spher
e
Ozone
0.000007%
Absor
bs
U V
li
ght
i
n t
he
str
atospher
e
Changes
wit
h t
ime
and
Met
hane
0.00017%
Some
chemoaut
otr
ophs
use
met
hane
as
a sour
ce
of
car
bon
al
ti
tude
in
the
tr
op ospher
e
and
str
atosphere
The
aver
age
composi
ti
on
of
the
atmospher
e i
s mai
ntai
ned
by
a nat
ural
dynami
c equi
li
bri
um
of
processes
­ t
he
2 most
i
mpor
tant
ar
e
phot
osynt
hesi
s and
respi
rat
ion.
a) Ozone
concent
rat
ion
a) Ther
e i
s mor
e
ozone
in
the
str
atosphere
w her
e UV l
ight
i
nter
acts
w i
th
oxygen
b) Temper
atur
e
b) Temperat
ures
decr
ease wit
h al
ti
tude
in
the
tropospher
e because
of
he at
ing
by
inf
rar
ed
radi
ati
on
fr
om
the
ground.
Temper
atur
es
c) At
mospher
ic
pressur
e
i
ncrease
w i
th
alt
it
ude i
n t
he st
rat
osphere
due
to
U V
bei
n g
absor
bed by
oxygen.
Te mperat
ures
decrease
w i
th
alt
it
ude i
n t
he
d) The pr
ocesses
that
mesosphere as
ther
e i
s no
suit
abl
e gas
to
absor
b UV.
Temp er
atur
es
increase
w i
th
alt
it
ude
in
the
ther
mo sphere
du e
to
U V
bei
ng
cause
the
comp osi
ti
on
absor
bed by oxygen
of
t
he at
mo spher
e
to
c) At
mo s
p her
ic
pressur
e decr
eases
w i
th
incr
easi
ng
alt
it
ude
f
luct
uate
d) Concent
rat
ions
of
C ar
bon di
oxi
de changes
over
24
hour
s.
Ther
e i
s mor
e at
ni
ght
as
e) The
impor
tance
of
the
r
espir
ati
on
is
occurr
ing
bu t
photosynt
hesis
isn'
t.
D ur
ing t
he
day phot
osynthesis
is
mo r
e
at
mo spher
e as
a
r
apid
than r
esp i
rat
ion,
so
carbon di
oxide
level
s drop.
Fluct
u at
ions
of
carbon di
oxide ar
e
l
i
fe suppor
t
syst
em:
gr
eater
in
summe r
t
han i
n winter
because hi
gher l
i
g ht
and t
emp erat
ure l
evels
ma ke bot
h
A sour
ce of
oxygen,
phot
osynthesis
and r
espir
a t
ion
mo re
rapi
d .
Wa t
er
vap our
vari
es wit
h t
he amo unt
of
Carbon di
oxide
t
ranspi
rati
on f
rom plant
s,
w hi
ch i
s usual
ly
rel
ated t
o t
e mp er
ature,
as
are
e vapor
a t
ion
a nd
Ni
trogen f
or
li
ving
pr
ecipi
tat
ion r
ates.
The var
iat
ions i
n water
vapour
con t
ent ar
e great
est
closest
t
o
the
or
gan i
sms
Wa ter
gr
oun d.
Long t
erm changes i
n at
mo spheri
c comp osi
ti
on occur
w i
th
the
acti
vit
y of
the
su n,
vapour
for
the
geol
ogical
processes,
and
hu man acti
ons.
These
change s,
combined
w i
th
e ner
g y
fr
om
hydr
ological
cyc
le
Eart
h and
S un,
produce
the sequence of
l
ayers i
n t
he atmosp her
e.
f) The
rol
e of
t
he
ozone
e) The
impor
tance
of
the
atmospher
e as
a l
i
fesuppor
t
syst
em:
`
l
a yer
'
in
reduci
ng

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Page 2

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A
sour
ce
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car
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dioxi
de
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for
l
iv
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and
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vapour
f
or
the
w at
er
cycl
e
the
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su rf
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ovi
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om
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one
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CFC s, C hl
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The
met
hods
by
whi
ch
C FC a) I
nter
nat
ional
agr
eement
s ­
The
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T his
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Page 9

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Out
put
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evapor
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Evapor
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Transpor
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Comments

A

Thank you so much! This is amazing!! 

A

Do you have one for unit 3 & 4? :) 

nishcat

this is perfection thank you 

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