The Edwardian Reformation

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  • The Edwardian Reformation
    • Edward's Influence
      • Surrounded himself with reforming preachers
      • Made it clear by the age of 13 that he didn't believe the First Prayer Book went far enough.
      • There is evidence he was involved in the legislation for the Second Act of Uniformity.
      • Edward was the driving force behind efforts to force his sister Mary submit to the new religion.
    • Religious reform under Somerset
      • Somerset was a strong Protestant who kept a Protestant household and became a correspondent of Calvin
        • Religious change was spasmodic and uncertain though because he feared the dangers associated with reform.
      • Repealed the 'Act of Six Articles' and the heresy laws. Moderation of the 'Treason Act' lifted censorship.
        • Resulted in an upsurge in the publication of Protestant literature, as well as an increase in the number of clergy preaching openly Protestant ideas in their parishes.
      • Iconoclasm- A royal injunction of 1547 had forbidden the veneration of images, but Visitation commissioners took the instructions much more strictly and began removing images from churches.
        • Although there had been opposition to the initial order, most churches complied without complaint and removed the offending images- many hiding them away in case.
      • 'Act of Uniformity'- Jan 1549- enforced the First Prayer Book, which outlined the form of worship to be used in services. It retained transubstantiation in the communion service but emphasised there was no sacrifice involved. Hoped to achieve compliance.
        • The introduction of the First Prayer Book was one of the grievances of the Western Rebels. Many complaints came from Protestants who thought the prayer didn't go far enough.
    • Religious reform under Northumberland
      • The second Act of Uniformity and the Second Prayer Book, 1552
        • The poor educational state of the clergy, from a reformist viewpoint, and the development of a more radical episcopacy were behind the production of a new prayer book.
          • There had been complaints that the first prayer book was dominated by catholic superstition, so the new one was a definite shift towards Protestantism. It also removed the wearing of vestments.
            • Signifies the culmination of the Edwardian Reformation. Abandoned the structure of mass and removed any suggestion of transubstantiation.
        • The Second Act of Uniformity imposed the Second Prayer Book.
      • The first step towards Protestantism was the adoption of a new Ordinal written by Cranmer in 1550. This marked a clear move away from Catholic priest to Protestant minister.
        • The most controversial issue was the move from Catholic alters to Protestant communion tables as it was the most visual sign of breaks with the past. In Nov 1550 the Council stepped in and ordered the removal of the alters to ensure uniformity.
          • The removal of alters had tended to be the result of local initiatives from reforming clergy.  In some churches the alters were dismantled and stored in hope they might one day be restored.
      • N'land rose to power with the support of the catholic members of the Council, and he also died a catholic, affirming his belief shortly before his execution.
        • However, under his stewardship England embraced Protestant doctrine and practices.  It is certain that he was more responsive to the wishes of the king than Somerset.
      • The Forty-Two Articles in 1553 were written by Cranmer and defined the reformed theology that was now in place. The articles were a mixture of Lutheran and Calvinist teaching and emphasised 'sola fide', lay control, the supremacy of the King and communion in both kinds for the laity too.
  • Religious reform under Northumberland
    • The second Act of Uniformity and the Second Prayer Book, 1552
      • The poor educational state of the clergy, from a reformist viewpoint, and the development of a more radical episcopacy were behind the production of a new prayer book.
        • There had been complaints that the first prayer book was dominated by catholic superstition, so the new one was a definite shift towards Protestantism. It also removed the wearing of vestments.
          • Signifies the culmination of the Edwardian Reformation. Abandoned the structure of mass and removed any suggestion of transubstantiation.
      • The Second Act of Uniformity imposed the Second Prayer Book.
    • The first step towards Protestantism was the adoption of a new Ordinal written by Cranmer in 1550. This marked a clear move away from Catholic priest to Protestant minister.
      • The most controversial issue was the move from Catholic alters to Protestant communion tables as it was the most visual sign of breaks with the past. In Nov 1550 the Council stepped in and ordered the removal of the alters to ensure uniformity.
        • The removal of alters had tended to be the result of local initiatives from reforming clergy.  In some churches the alters were dismantled and stored in hope they might one day be restored.
    • N'land rose to power with the support of the catholic members of the Council, and he also died a catholic, affirming his belief shortly before his execution.
      • However, under his stewardship England embraced Protestant doctrine and practices.  It is certain that he was more responsive to the wishes of the king than Somerset.
    • The Forty-Two Articles in 1553 were written by Cranmer and defined the reformed theology that was now in place. The articles were a mixture of Lutheran and Calvinist teaching and emphasised 'sola fide', lay control, the supremacy of the King and communion in both kinds for the laity too.

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