Mary I - Government 1553-1558

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  • Mary I - Government 1553-1558
    • Key Advisors
      • Lord William Paget: administrator under HVIII; appointed to Privy Council under HVIII; close to Somerset but also served Northumberland and Mary (excluded under Elizabeth).
      • Stephen Gardiner: lost Bishop post under EVI & imprisoned in the Tower for Catholic views; restored as Bishop of Winchester under Mary I; also made Lord Chancellor.
      • Cardinal Reginald Pole: Grandson of EIV's brother; went into exile in Italy rather than accept HVIII's reforms; made Cardinal 1536 & was very influential; made Archbishop of Canterbury 1554.
      • Simon Renard: Imperial Ambassador of Charles V; important in arranging marriage between Philip II and Mary I; his influence on Mary I declined after her marriage to Philip.
    • Problems
      • Did not have the confidence of the Council she inherited in 1553 (Edward's council dominated by reformers)
      • Mary and her most loyal supporters had little experience of Government and the English Court: she had been excluded from court.
      • Mary had appointed conservative councillors from her Father's reign: more likely to support reversal of the Edwardian reforms.
      • The council was too large, leading to factionalism and division: 50 councillors but had a much smaller working council.
      • Mary was over-reliant on the advice and support of Philip and Simon Renard: should have chosen more reliable councillors.
      • Mary never really had the full cooperation of Parliament.
      • The Spanish Marriage was unpopular: never discussed in Parliament & not supported by the public.
    • Reduced importance of the Privy Chamber as males weren't allowed and therefore could not influence her.
    • Financial Policies
      • Increase in crown income due to change in admin. of revenue collection.
      • Lord Treasurer = Winchester.
      • The Court of Exchequer took over both the Court of First Fruit and Tenths and the Court of Augmentations.
      • New Book of Rates introduced - modernises the setting of customs revenues and increased crown income by 200% in one year.
      • Crown in debt of £227,000.


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