Rule of Parliament & Councillors


Cardinal Pole

Papal legate

1536- created cardinal

1555- Archbishop of Canterbury 

Had yorkist royal blood

Main task:

  • RE-EST CATH to people been discourages from Old Faith by 20 yrs anti-Roman propaganda - failed 
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How Mary est herself on throne



'sterility= conclusive note'


'had reweave polit fabric of nation' 

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Weaknesses in Mary & her councillors

  • Council dominated by figures e.g. Paget
  • Robert Rochester- royal & trusted supporter - had no serious experience in gov
  • M not brought up to rule
  • Had rely on Ed's councillors as advisers - clash in religion
  • Appointed 50 councillors - large - not efficient 
  • Short term persecutions - won little support + hostility 
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Positives in Mary & her councillors

  • Gardiner, Winchester & Paget= experienced 
  • Pole= trusted adviser 
  • Advise 2 foreigners: Husband- Philip II + Ambassador Charles V, Simon Renard 
  • Had smaller group with selected people- factional rivalries? 
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Parliament & Reform

Measures Mary defated in Parliament

Legal position Philip II

  • 1554 parl rejected bill - specifically include Philip in protective clauses for proposed new law on treason 
  • 1555 prevented coronation King 

Parliament concerns of Mary

  • Bill 1555 - allow seizure property of Prot exiles - defeated 
  • Concern of property rights - ensured ex- monastic property not be restored to church 

Relationship with Parliament 

  • Substantial minority MPs opposed reversal Edwardian legisl
  • Cautious cooperarion 
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