The Western Zone, 1945-49 - Germany

  • Created by: RConwa_y
  • Created on: 19-05-18 19:15
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  • The Western Zone, 1945-49
    • Events in the Western Zone
      • 1947
        • Economic recovery was essential to prevent an economic crisis and social revolution in West Europe. Food had to be imported (costing $700 million per year)
        • The problem was worsened as industry was dismantled to pay reparation. The British and American zones formed Bizonia. Aid was poured into the Western zone
      • 1946-47
        • A severe winter made conditions worse. A weak British economy meant Britain couldn't fund its zone
      • 1948
        • The Marshall Plan was applied to the Western zone. The London Conference, between Feb and Jun 1948, agreed a West Germany currency and state
        • From summer 1948 onwards, Western representatives of the Parliamentary Council started to devise a continuation for a new state in the West
      • 1946
        • The USA drew up plans for German reconstruction - France and Russia disagreed. France wanted a weak Germany and it annexed Saar for a short period
      • 1949
        • France, after initial resistance, joined the British and American zones and created Trizonia. A new constitution, the Basic Law, was adopted in May 1949 which established a West German state
    • Problems in the Western Zone
      • Germany suffered total defeat in 1945, with occupation and massive territorial losses
      • After its surrender, Germany ceased to be a state, it was under the administration of the Allies. There were three Western Zones (France, Britain and the America)
      • The Allied Control Centre was the body, whose decisions had to be unanimous, and when this failed, each military governor could implement their policy in their own zone
      • Problems following the Second World War
        • Food and fuel shortages
        • Homelessness
        • Bereavement
        • Integration of soldiers into civilian society
        • Refugees
        • Dealing with the impact of genocide
        • The collapse of the currency
    • The growing divisions between the East and West zones
      • In 1947, economic problems resulted in the British and American zones being merged to form Bizonia. In 1949 France joined and formed Trizonia
      • Disputes over Soviet reparations from Western zones emerged, There was also growing division between Russia and the West over the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Aid
      • A black market had grown in the West because of the weak currency, a new currency was introduced, the Deutschmark. The Soviets refused to follow suit, This began the Berlin blockade
      • Russia said the blockade would continue until West Germany abandoned their plans. Russia used their own currency, the East German mark

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