Textiles - Fibres and Fabrics

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  • Created by: Chanabix
  • Created on: 08-05-13 09:36
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  • Textiles - Fibres and Fabrics
    • Cotton - natural
      • Non static, always contains some moisture (20% not wet)
      • Cool to wear (unless brushed), bad insulation, naturally air permeable
      • Highly absorbent (65% itself with no drip) but slow drying
      • Comfortable unless wet, good strength and durability but stronger when wet
      • Poor elasticity, creases easily
      • Biodegradble/ recyclable
      • Shrinks, 6-10% extensibility
      • Environmental issues
        • Pesticides (let out chemicals when washed and can be harmful to environment/ animals) -> reduce pollution by growing organic cotton/use bio-pesticides which are lower cost and more environmentally friendly
        • Genetic engineering -> development of high performance cottons to improve strength, length, appearance and thermal properties.
        • Dyes -> deadly toxins released when washed, dried, dumped, etc. Use naturally coloured cottons - based on selection and replaces bleach/dye
        • Chemical treatmeants -> less biodegradble, reuse until decintigrated
        • Care -> use of detergents, dry cleaning fluids, energy and water - cost/damage
        • Land -> taken in poorer countries which would be used for food (poverty) and transport -> Co2 emissions
    • Linen - natural
      • Stronger wet than dry, lowest extensibility of all apparel fibres - 2%
      • Fresh and cool to wear, poor insulator
      • Highly absorbent but dirt-repellent and anti-microbias, doesn't soil easily and desn't shed lint, fast drying
      • Stiffer and harder than cotton, firm handle, smooth surface and crisp/coarse, subdued lustre
      • Good drape, strength and durability
      • Poor elasticity, creases badly
      • Non static - always contains some moisture
      • Biodegradable/ recyclable
    • Wool - natural
      • Soft and warm to wear, coarse of flimsy
      • Slow absorbency (hydrophobic - repels rain drops) but can absorb up to 1/3 weight in water without feeling wet, heavy when wet, very slow drying
      • Fine wool is comfortable and coarse is scratchy
      • Good drape, medium strength, not durable
      • Very good elasticity, creases drop out
      • May shrink
    • Silk - natural
      • Cool but good insulation
      • Highly absorbent, slow drying, absorbs up to 1/3 its weight without feeling wet
      • Very comfortable unless wet
      • Soft, fine handle, good drape, seen as a luxury fibre
      • Good strength and durability, rotted by perspiration - brittleness/stain/ colour change
      • Poor elasticity, creases tend to fall out though
      • Non-static, always contains some moisture
      • Rub together = scroop sound like snow
      • Ruined by steam
      • Extensibility - 10-30%
    • Acetate/triacetate - regenerated
      • more elastic than viscose but creases easily
      • subdued lustre
      • closes approach to natural silk
      • low absorbency, prone to statis
      • air permeable  naturally
      • low warmth. thermoplastic and so sensitive to dry heat
      • dyes well, dries rapidly
      • biodegradable and recyclable
    • Modal - regenerated
      • silky, smooth, very soft handle, good drape, comfortable to wear
      • poor elasticity - creases easily
      • dyes to brilliant bright colours
      • absorbs up to 50% more moisture than cotton, non-static as it always contains some moisture (11-14% moisture vapour) (swells and absorbs up to 80-120% water)
      • naturally air permeable, low ability to trap air and so low warmth
      • lower strength and durability than cotton but higher than viscose
      • shrinks less than viscose and breaking  extension is  15-30% - more than double of cotton
      • swells  less than viscose, more stable
      • biodegradable and recyclable
    • Viscose - regenerated
      • fine, soft handle, good drape, comfortable to wear, lustre varies
      • poor elasticity, creases easily
      • dyes and prints to bright colours but shrinks
      • more absorbent than cotton, non-static because it always contains some moisture
      • naturally air permeable - 11-14% of water vapour absorbed and 80-120% water
      • low ability to trap air - low warmth
      • lower strength and durability than cotton, weaker than cotton dry and wet is only 40-70% of dry, can tear when wet
      • swells in water - causes to shrink, 15-30% extensibility
      • biodegradable and recyclable - inexpensive to produce
    • Lyocell/ Tencell - regenerated
      • fineness can be similar to cotton or wool
      • properties of  comfort  comparable to other cellulosic fibres
      • good wet (lower than dry) and dry strength (better than mid-grade cotton) - usually better than man-made celluloisic fibres
      • extensibility - 10-14% higher than cotton
      • elasticity is low (as with all celluloisic fibres)
      • moisture absorption less than viscose, more than cotton - non-statiic
      • Environmental issues
        • 1 - spinning is clean and simple and the only raw materials are wood cellulose and water, spun using wood plup from forests where the replanting rates exceed the usage
    • Nylon (polyamide) - synthetic
      • textured filaments trap air making it insulting, flat filaments don't so it is not insultated
      • non absorbent - prone to static - textured filaments transport  moisture away from the body (wicking)
      • thermoplastic - sensitive to dry heat, textured and heat-set
      • very strong and durable (tear resist), fine and soft or firm depending on fibre fineness, fabric construction and finishing
      • wind proof, hydrophobic  water-repellent, easy-care, lightweight, flammable
      • good elasticity, good crease resist
      • resist to mildew, alkali's  solvents and fungus
      • degraded by concentrated acids
      • dyes well - sunlight = lost strength and yellows
      • air permeable comfort engineered, high extensibilty wet and dry
      • non-biodegradable or renwerable
    • Polyester - synthetic
      • soft or firm handle - range from microfibres to course fibres (fine and soft or firm) - depends on fibre fineness, fabric construction and finishing
      • good elasticity, crease resist, good drape
      • resist to acids, alkali'ss, solvent, mildew and fungus
      • non renewable but can be recycled - 25 plastic bottles = 1 jumper
      • dyes well but yellows and loses strength in sunlight
      • textured , bulked and heat set - sensitive to dry heat (thermoplastic)
      • low warmth on flat filaments, insulating on textured filaments
      • very low absorbency - hydrophobic
      • comfortable but prone to static - contains no moisture
      • microfibres air permeable, coarse fibres can be  ajusted to be
      • very strong and durable
      • easy-care, lightweight, good heat resist
      • textured filaments transport moisture away from the body
    • Acrylic - synthetic
      • low absorbency, fast drying, prone to static (contains no moisture)
      • good strength, crease resist, very good elasticity
      • warm, easy-care
      • thermoplastic - sensitive to steam and heat, can result in shrinkage
      • non renewable  resource
      • fast drying, comfortable  good drape, soft wool-like handle
    • PVC - synthetic
      • flexible, strong and durable
      • air permeable, easy-care, waterproof
      • good insulation
      • thermoplastic
      • non-flammable
      • non-renewable
      • anti-bacterial finish for medical textiles
    • Lycra/elastane - synthetic
      • stretches up to 7x original length and recovers when tension is released
      • supple fabric with enhanced drape
      • comfortable and crease resistant
      • chlorine resist - comfort in swimwear and lasting fit in leather and washable, crease resistant linen
      • absorbent (non-static - always contains some moisture), easy care
      • non-renewable
      • good strength, improves body shaping and shape relention
      • adds softness/firm handle
      • precise combination of yarn thickness, texture, brightness and stretch performance to suit end use - engineered
      • dyes well

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