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Fibre production See diagrams in Chapter 3 p. 88 ­ 91. Look at the processes involved
in; Cotton spinning, Wool production, Viscose production and
synthetic fibre production.
Yarn production Texturing processes ­ a heat process to give the fibres durable
crimps, coils or loops along the length. Texturing adds bulk and
makes the yarn warmer, more elastic, absorbent and softer.
Examples of synthetic fibres and yarns which have been textured or
bulked in different ways.
1. Fabric manufacture…read more

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Preparation of fabric for dyeing Desizing: this means getting out the sizing agent which is sometimes starch, used to stiffen the fabric
Scouring: means washing out the natural fats, waxes, dirt and oils that are in the fabric.
Bleaching: this means destroying the natural colour of the fabric using hydrogen peroxide making it pure
Batch Dyeing Jig dyeing: passing of fabric through a dye bath from one roller to the other roller, this keeps the fabric flat
and gives an even colour
Winch dyeing: the fabric is bunched together to form a long `rope' this is then circulated around rollers
and winches through the dye bath.
Jet dyeing: Fabric moves along a heated tube where jets of dye solution are forced through it at high
Continuous dyeing Fabrics are fed continuously into a dye solution. The speeds can vary between 50 to 250 meters per
minute. Continuous dyeing is a popular dyeing method and accounts for around 60% of total yardage of
the products that are dyed.
Resist methods Means where methods are used to "resist" or prevent the dye from reaching all the cloth, thereby creating
a pattern and ground. The most common forms use wax, some type of paste, or a mechanical resist that
manipulates the cloth such as tying or stitching. Examples are Tie-Dye and Batik (using wax)
Direct dyeing The type of dye used for cellulosic and some protein fibres
Reactive dyeing Used for natural fibers making them among the most permanent of dyes. "Cold" reactive dyes are very
easy to use because the dye can be applied at room temperature. Reactive dyes are by far the best choice
for dyeing cotton and other cellulose fibres.
Vat dyeing Where the fabric or garment is immersed in a bath or vat of dye
Disperse dyeing Type of dye used for polyester
2. Fabric preparation - DYEING
Acid dyeing
Stages of dyeing
Used on protein fibres such as wool or silk
Dye can be applied at any stage of the manufacturing process depending on requirements. Eg. Fibres,
Yarns Fabric or Garment.…read more

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Direct printing Simplest printing method, creating a positive image in one or more
colours onto a white or pale background.
Discharge printing The creation of a `negative' image, a white or coloured pattern on a
dark background. By using bleach or other chemicals to destroy the
dye already present.
Transfer printing The transference of an image to fabric via paper (like the heat transfer
press in school) sublimation inks are used.
Roller printing Where the print is applied to fabric using and inked roller, not used
much nowadays in manufacturing. More of a traditional method.
Rotary/flat bed screen Rotary screen printing: dye is applied to the fabric from within a rotary
printing tube which is engraved with the printing pattern.
Flat bed screen printing: the printing paste is pushed through a screen
onto the fabric. The pattern is created by blocking out areas of the
screen with filler.
Digital printing Uses ink jet printers to print CAD designs directly onto fabric using
special printing inks.
2. Fabric preparation -
PRINTING…read more

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Fixation Where the colour or print is fixated into the fabric (made permanent) can be through chemicals or steam. To
make the fabric colourfast (so that the colour doesn't wash out)
Washing Fabrics can be washed before they are manufactured into products. They are also tested in laboratory
conditions to ensure that they can withstand certain temperatures and conditions.
Drying Fabrics need to be dried at a consistent heat and air flow
Heat-setting Synthetic fibres can be heat treated to set them permanently into shape, for example pleats. Natural fibres
have to have a resin treatment first before they can be heat set.
Raising Like brushing, fabric is passed through rollers covered with fine flexible wire brushes which lift up the fibres to
form a soft surface called a `nap'.
Calendering Like flattening, fabric is passed through heated heavy rollers under pressure (like industrial ironing) to smooth
the surface, and add a sheen.
Embossing Similar to calendering except the rollers have a raised pattern on them which gets transferred onto the fabric
Shrinking Some fabrics need to be pre-shrunk before being made into garments. Eg. Cotton.
Beetling Fabric is passed through a machine with revolving wooden hammers that gives fabric a lustrous sheen
Stone/sand washing A process used to give a newly manufactured cloth or garment a worn-out appearance. Stone-washing also
helps to increase the softness and flexibility of otherwise stiff and rigid fabrics such as canvas and denim. The
process uses large stones to roughen up the fabric being processed. The garments are placed in a large
horizontal industrial clothes washer that is also filled with large stones. As the wash cylinder rotates, the cloth
fibres are repeatedly pounded and beaten as the tumbling stones ride up the paddles inside the drum and fall
back down onto the fabric.
Laser-cutting Laser cutting provides a clean cut on synthetic materials and seals the edge. Intricate shapes can be cut
out or engraving fabric is possible by setting the laser higher.
2. Fabric preparation ­ FINISHING PROCESSES
Water repellency Teflon or Scotchguard resin finish applied to repel water…read more

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Pattern drafting Creation of a garment using technical drawing skills. Sometimes a ready made `foundation' is
altered (basic block)
Templates Templates make batch and mass production faster and more accurate, ie making a template for jobs such
as buttonhole marking.
Basic block pattern This is used to develop every type of garment style.
It enables the quality control of garment sizes.
It is traces or 'wheeled' onto pattern paper, to produce a working pattern.
Working pattern This is used for marking out basic styles and design features.
It can be adapted further.
It is used to trial the garment style.
Production pattern This includes all the seams, hems, grain lines and pattern information required to make up the product.
It is used to cut the fabric for high-volume garments.
Draping Creation of a garment which is formed directly onto a mannequin
Notches, balance marks Shapes on a pattern to allow the separate pieces to line up
Seam allowance Extra material at the edge of a product to create seams or hems
Ease The difference between your actual body measurements and the finished measurements of a garment.
Most garments need a slight amount of ease (called wearing ease) to fit around the body and permit
movement; form-fitting knit garments are the exception-- they need a negative amount of ease to stretch
around the body.
Principles of grading Scaling of a pattern to a different size.
Individual size grading is used for bespoke or one-off designs, adapting a basic block to fit the
client's body measurements. This takes account of individual size variations.
Standard size grading for mass production , to fit a range of average body sizes. Either based
on British Standards size charts of body measurements or a manufacturer's own garment
3. Pattern drafting
specifications/ nest of patterns stores in a database.…read more

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