TB9 D&L Lecture 3; Middle Childhood

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  • Lecture 3; Middle Childhood
    • Emotions
      • Key terms
        • Script; A generalised framework for commonly experienced events with a stored represent-ation of expectations
        • Emotional ambiguity; a persons feelings may not be clear or match your own
      • Under-standing emotions
        • Denham (1986); 2 & 3 years. Can they predict emo responses non-egocentrically? Puppet task
          • Able to predict puppet responses above chance
        • Children as young as 18 months can appreciate people liking diferent things
          • Brocolli v.s cracker task, infant gives experimentor one she likes > the one the infant likes
        • Emotion in the family
          • Dunn et al (1991)
            • Discussion of feelings & causes of related to childs emo development inc. emotional conflicts
            • Children with mothers who described them re; mental characteristics performed better on false belief
            • Emotional understanding correlated with naturalistic play behaviour
        • Understanding the causes of feelings
          • 83% of 4-11 years cited themselves as causes of parent anger
            • 65% happiness, 49% sadness
            • More common in younger children
      • Different reactions to the same event
        • Gnepp et al (1987); 5-8 year olds. On puppet task
          • Older children better at recognising people may react differently
      • Cognition and emotion
        • False belief tasks
          • Harris et al (1989); 4-6 year olds on false belief
            • 4 year olds perform poorly at predicting INITIAL emotional response
            • At 6 years, perfom well and can justify animals emotional response with its belief state
        • Emotional conflicts
          • Harris (1983); 6-10 year olds, can they feel more than one emotion simultaneous-ly?
            • Controlled for 1) memory differences 2) age related differences such as ignorance of emo response
            • 79% of 6 year olds said 2 emotions was logically and behaviourally impossible, 33% if 10 year olds
            • Minority of 10 year olds still denied, age cannot explain fully the difference
        • Hiding true feelings
          • 3 years; can suppress expression of negi emotions
          • 6 years; can discriminate between real and apparent emotions
          • Age related increase in this ability
          • Encouraged by socialisation
    • Self
      • Key terms
        • Self-esteem; A persons overall evaluation of their own worth
        • Self-perception profile; Measures 5 domains of self esteem...
          • Athletic competence
          • Behavioural conduct
          • Physical appearence
          • Scholastic competence
          • Social acceptance and overall self-worth
          • Pictoral format for younger children, verbal format for older
        • Self-efficacy; persons evaluation of their ability to achieve a goal or outcome in a particular task
    • Peers and friends
      • Key terms
        • Sociogram; Visual representation of personal group relationships
          • Circles = girls, triangles = boys
          • Number of lines between two children = % of observations seen playing together
          • Nomination data = reciprocal relationships
        • Sociometry; A picture of the social structure of a group from observational evidence
        • Sociometric status
          • A two-dimensional > one-dimensional model is preferred
          • Stability over time
          • Dodge et al (1983) 5 year olds
            • Popular status played through group-oriented statements
            • Neglected children stayed waiting and watching
              • Liked by teachers
            • Rejected children used disruptive actions
              • Spent less time in co-operative play, more time arguing and fighting
              • Did poorly in schoolwork
              • Majority of rejected children were 'aggressive-rejected' > 'rejected-submissive'
          • Majority of rejected children were 'aggressive-rejected' > 'rejected-submissive'
      • Friendship
        • Definition; close associations between people
        • Three stages in expectations of friendships
          • 1) 6-8 years; friendship = common activities, living close, similar expectations
          • 2) 9-10 years; Shared values, rules, sanctions
          • 3) 11-12 years, under-standing and self disclosure, shared interests
          • A shift from physical to psychological
        • Newcomb & Bagwell (1995); friend interactions have 4 main features
          • More intense social activity
          • More reciprocity and intimacy
          • More conflict resolution
          • More effective joint task performance
        • Hartup (1996) three important factors in friendship
          • Having friends
          • Having high status friends
          • Good quality friendships
        • The importance of friendship?
          • Parker and Asher (1987); review of studies with three outcomes; dropping out of school early, juvenile and adult crime, adult psychopathology
            • Consistent link between few friends and dropping out
            • Consistent link between aggressive-ness and juvenile/adult crime
      • Friendship and later well-being
        • Bagwell et al (1998)
          • Follow up study of 10 year olds --> 23 year olds
          • Friendship and peer rejection linked to adult life adjustment?
        • Peer rejection in school predicted poorer life status
        • Friendship predicted self-esteem
        • Lack of friendship and peer rejection predictor of psycho-pathological symptoms

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