Psychology stress mindmap

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  • Created by: mmcbride
  • Created on: 24-03-15 13:03
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  • Stress
    • Bodys response to stress - physically
      • Perceives threat from the environment - 'fight or flight' response
      • Important to out ancestors to allow them to hunt/stay alive
      • May not be universally  adaptive because stressors have changed
      • Sympatho -meduallary pathway + pituitary adrenal system
    • Stress and illness + immune system
      • Kielcolt-Glaser
        • Acute stress: took blood samples once a month, questionnaire
          • Measured the affect on immune system by measuring NK cell activity
            • Stress + illness is not a simple relationship, affected by many different factors
          • Low NK cell activity means low immune system
            • Individual differences: age and gender
      • Marucha
        • Looked at students during exam period/ summer holidays
          • Punch biopsy (mouth) 40% longer for mouths to heal for student. Stress affects immune system
    • Life changes
      • Holmes and Rahe
        • Developed the SRRS (Social readjustment rating scale)
        • Based on 43 life events from 5000 patient records
      • If a person scored a low/high number of LCU (life change units) - low/ high stress
      • 400 participants scored on the readjustment needed - Marriage being 50
      • Rahe et al tested the SRRS
        • 2700 men, wrote down all life events in past 6 months before a tour of duty
          • Evaluation: the SRRS ignores individual differences
        • Type and severity of illness recorded during tour
          • Evaluation: it is minor daily hassles rather than life changes which have a bigger impact (Delongis et al)
        • Found Positive correlation between LCU scores and illness score
          • Evaluation: most of the research shows a correlation (Brown)
      • Micheal + Ben Zur
        • 130 men + women, recently divorced or widowed
        • Looked at levels of satisfaction
    • Daily hassles
      • Boueteyre
        • Investigated relationship between daily hassles and mental health
          • Transition to uni, found 41% of students suffered depressive symptoms
      • Boueteyre + Gervais
        • Ruffin also showed that daily hassles provide more a significant source of stress than major life events
          • The accumalation of daily stressors creates persistent irritations (Lazaus)
    • Workplace stress
      • Job strain model
        • High workload: staying late to complete work, making decisions and running the company
        • Low job control: tighter deadlines, pay dependenton how others perform, more rigid working hours
      • Marmot et al
        • Suggested civil servant, higher grade employees = high workload visa versa
          • 7372  civil servants, questionnaire,checked for signs of cardio -vascular disease
            • Evaluation, Schulz et al: people with work underlay reported low job satisfaction and high levels of stress related illness
          • Found no link between workload and stress related illness
          • 5 years later, low levels of job control more likely to have cardio -vascular disease
      • Johansson et al
        • Sawyers in a swedish sawmill
          • considered a stressful job: sense of responsibility etc.
            • Evaluation, Schaubroek et al, individual differences
        • Found the high risk group had high illness rates + high levels of adrenaline in urine, compared to low risk group
    • Personality and stress - type A personality
      • Ragland + Brand
        • Follow up study 22 years late, found 214 died from CHD
        • Found little evidence of relationship between type A behaviour and morality
          • Evaluation: Myrtek, metanalysis on 35 studies
            • Found an association between CHD and the hostile componenet of type A personality
      • Friedman and Rosenman
        • Investigated whether CHD is associated with type a behaviour
          • Assessed by interview, conducted in provocative manner and interviewer might speak slowly
          • Found after 8 and half years, twice as many type A men died from CV problems
          • 12% had heart attacks, whereas 6% of type B did
        • 3000 men aged 39 to 59, living in California
    • Personality and stress - Hardy
      • Kobasa
        • A hardy personality type encouragees resiliance
          • 800 American business executive using SRRS model
            • Roughly 150 participants classified as high stress
              • Found the individuals in the high stress/low illness group scored high on all 3 characteristicvisa versa
      • Lifton et al
        • Tested students at 5 US units.
      • characteristic that provide defences against negative effects of stress
    • Psychological methods of stress management
      • Stress Innoculation Therapy - Michenbaum
        • 1. Concept-ualisation
        • 2. Skills acquisation
        • 3. Application
        • Michenbaum compared SIT with systematic de sensitation , snake phobias
          • SIT was better and can innoculate against future stressors
          • Requires a lot of time, effort, motivation and money
    • Biological methods of stress management
      • 2 types - Benzo diazephines + Betablockers

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