Strength

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  • Strength
    • Maximal Strength
      • the maximum force the neuro muscular system can exert in a single voluntary contraction
      • leg dynamiter
      • grip dynamometer
    • Explosive Strength
      • the ability to expand a maximal amount of energy in one or a series of strong, sudden, high intensity movements
      • vertical jump test
      • broad jump test
    • Strength Endurance
      • the ability to sustain a number of muscular contractions for a period of time
      • push up test = arm and shoulder endurance
      • NCF abdominal sit-up test
    • Static Strength
      • also known as isometric strength, which is a steady force exerted while the limbs are in a stationary or static position
      • no specific test for static strength because strength varies and is specific to any given joint angle
    • Dynamic strength
      • the ability of the neuromuscular system to overcome resistance with a high speed of contraction, can be known as anaerobic capacity
      • wingate - cycle test on a cycle ergometer - maximum for 30 seconds
    • Muscle Composition
      • the greater the percentage of fast twitch muscle fibres = greater force
      • the greater the cross section area of the muscle = greater force
      • the greater the muscle size = greater force
    • Gender
      • very little difference, however females strength is generally lower
      • females have less body mass, cross section of muscle and muscle size is lower than males
      • Females have less testostrone
    • Age
      • females peak strength is between 16-25 years old
      • males peak strength is between 18-25 years old
      • greatest gains between 20-30 years old for both genders
      • strength decreases with age due to a decrease in muscle mass
    • Physical Inactivity
      • leads to atrophy
      • occurs 48 hours after exercise
    • Multi-gym
      • series of specialist exercise machines that incorporate a range of resistance exercises with adjustable weight stacks
      • each station targets specific muscle groups providing a resistance
      • + exercises all in one area
      • - limited in what you can do, limiting variation
    • Free Weights
      • non mechanical, free standing
      • good for general and specific strength development
      • not as safe as multi-gym
    • Plyometric Training
      • incorporates jumps, bounds and hop type exercises and is linked to the development of power
      • based up knowledge of the stretch reflex to recruit more motor units to increase force production
        • stretch reflex is a protective reflex mechanism when a muscle will concentrically contract in response to being overstretched
      • increased risk of DOMs
    • Circuit Training
      • uses a series of exercise stations which can be repeated a set number of times
      • performers body weight acts as a resistance
      • normally in order of muscle groups
    • Adaptions
      • Neural
        • increased recruitment of fast twitch muscle fivres
        • increased motor units
        • improved co-ordination
      • Skeletal-Muscle
        • hypertrophy
        • hyperplasia - increase in muscle fibres
        • increased number of contractile proteins
      • Metabolic
        • increase in ATP, PC glycogen stores
        • increased efficiency of lactic acid removal
        • increased anaerobic threshold
      • Cardio
        • hypertrophy of the heart
        • increased blood pressure
        • increased capillary density
        • decreased volume of left ventricle
        • Disadvantages of CV adaptions
          • larger heart muscle fibres can increase the distance and speed of oxygen and carbon dioxide diffusion, which may limit metabolic functioning
          • muscle hypertrophy can decrease aerobic strength endurance without an increase in the number of mitochondria

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