• Created by: vickyb03
  • Created on: 13-02-20 13:12
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  • Strength
    • Types of training
      • Maximal
        • is the ability to produce a maximal amount of force in a single contraction
      • Endurance
        • is the ability to sustain repeated contractions over a period of time
      • Explosive
        • is the ability to produce a maximal amount of force in a one or series of rapid contractions
    • Affects on strength
      • Age
        • Female = 16-25 years, Males = 18-30 years
        • Age declines due to a decrease in efficiency of neuromuscular system, elasticity and testosterone
          • Reduction in muscle mass
      • Gender
        • Males > Females
        • Males have a higher muscle mass due to testosterone levels
      • Cross-sectional area
        • Larger cross-section the greater strength
        • Maximum fore is between 16-30 Newtons per squared centimetre of muscle
      • Fibre types
        • Higher % of FF and FOG fibres = greater strength
        • Fast twitch have larger motor neuron forming motor units
    • Testing strength
      • Vertical Jump test
        • - Only measures explosive strength, It is not isolated to one muscle group
        • + Very minimal equipment required, Using formula it can be changed to power output
      • Sit-up Curl Abdominals
        • + Large groups of people, Simple and cheap, Abs can be isolated, Valid and Reliable
        • - Max test to exhaustion, Not sport specific, Good technique, Injury on spine
      • 1 Rep Max
        • + Direct objective, Easy procedure, Most muscles groups can be tested
        • - Isolation of individual muscle is hard, trial and error, potential for injury, good technique
      • Hand Grip dynometer
        • + Simple and objective, High reliability, Inexpensive equipment
        • - Only measures forearm, No sport specific
    • Types of training
      • Multi gym
        • A wide range of exercises which allow adjustability for specific strength
        • Space efficient and provide a body workout
      • Free weights
        • High resistance and low repetitons increase strength and muscle size
        • Specific to muscle group or movement.
      • Plyometric
        • Series of explosive exercies such as jumping bouncing
        • Increases Explosive strength
        • Lower body however can be modified, Good for sprinters, throwers and game players
    • Adaptations
      • Neural
        • Increased motor units so a increase in the force of contractions
        • Decreased inhibition of stretch reflex so increased force of contractions
      • Muscle and skeletal
        • Muscle hypertrophy so strength increases and increase size of FG fibres
        • Increased strength of tendons and ligaments so increased joint stability and decreased injury
        • Increased bone density and mass so increased absorption and decreased risk of osteoporosis
      • Metabolic
        • Increased ATP, PC, Glycogen so increased energy production
        • Increased enzyme activity so increased efficiency of anaerobic energy production
        • Increased muscle mass so increased metabolic rate


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