Soul, Mind and Body

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  • Soul, mind and body
    • Plato's view of the soul
      • Plato and Opposites
        • Forms and particulars, knowledge vs opinion, philosopher vs non-philosopher.
        • Idea of dual aspect is important to his ideas about human beings.
      • The soul and its body
        • Plato says that the soul is important than the body.
        • Our body allows us to gain opinions about senses. Our soul helps us understand knowledge.
        • Body distracts us from our purpose.
        • Our soul is immortal and cannot be divided. Unchanging and incapable of knowledge.
        • "while in company with the body and the soul cannot have pure knowledge of two things seem to follow" Plato
      • The make up of the soul
        • Plato's analogy describing the inner workings of the soul.
        • Charioteer in charge of two horses. One behaves.
        • Three aspects in the soul: reason, spirit and appetite.
        • The soul works when the charioteer and the horses pull in different direction.
        • Appetite leads us to unhelpful things. Spirit and will needed to do the right thing.
    • Aristotle's view of the body and soul
      • The soul is not a separate substance
        • Aristotle rejects substance dualism- Plato
        • Soul isn't separate from the body. Reasoning through the understanding of the forms.
        • Aristotle: Plato's theory of forms, uneccessary.
      • 'soul' as a form of the body
        • Soul description of properties of our body.
        • Two can't be divided; body not a person for a soul as Plato thinks. Body and soul.
        • Axe and Ey. Body and axe, soul would be the ability to chop.
        • "It indubitably follows that the soul in separable from the body" Aristotle.
      • Aristotle's hierarchy of being
        • All living things have a soul- Aristotle.
        • Human soul is made up from the irrational and the rational part.
      • Aristotle and the afterlife.
        • Aristotle doesn't believe in life after death.
        • Our identity doesn't survive after death, abstract property of reasoning.
    • Descartes and Substance Dualism
      • The metaphysics of consciousness
        • Logical privacy: only I know my thoughts
        • Subjectivity: conscious experiences from first person view.
        • Qualia: describe how an experience feels to the person who experiences it.
        • Non-spatial: conscious doesn't take up physical space.
        • Two main theories of consciousness. 1) substance dualism: Descartes and Plato argue the mind is non-physical, separate from the body. 2) Materialism: view of Aristotle etc is that explanation.
      • Doubting the body and proving the soul
        • 1) Senses unreliable. 2) Hard to know the difference between dreaming and being awake. 3) Evil demon who deceive everything.
        • Hypothetical but seems to establish it's possible to doubt everything, including existence of the body.
        • Rene Descartes "cogito ergo sum."
        • Difference between the mind and the soul is that the mind is logically dependent of the body.
        • Difference between the mind and body reveals there are two things. Logical principle of Leibniz Law.
      • Difference between our mind and body
        • 1) Descartes argues Cogtio helps us identify nature of mind and a 'thinking thing.' Essence of mind non-physical.
        • 2) Wax argument: identify the physical nature of physical matter and its extended. Property remains is wax.
        • 3) mind and body composed substances: mind essence non-physical, essence of body is physical space.
      • Views on the soul, mind and body
        • Plato: the soul and the body are two seperate things.
        • Aristotle: the body and the soul are inseparable. Soul is the Form of the Body.
        • Descartes: mind and body are two separate substances.
        • Materialism: our material body is the only substance one.
    • Materialism
      • Reject the idea that the soul is a separate substance.
      • Richard Dawkins
        • Argues that the 'soul' is myth from philosophers to explain the mystery of consciousness.
        • 'soul' is a convenient explanation 'not an explanation but an evasion.
        • Dawkins soul one and two: soul one is the traditional one, it has our personality. Soul two is an 'intellectual or spiritual power'.
        • 'In the sense of Soul One, science has either killed the soul or is in process.' Dawkins.
      • Gilbert Ryle
        • Problem as thinking of the soul as a 'thing' physical or non-physical.
        • 'ghost in the machine' is a mistake. A 'category mistake.'
      • Susan Blackmore
        • Early academic life  researching physic phenomena resulting to an out-of body experience.
        • Rejects the idea that our consciousness is non-physical.
        • Mind is explained by cultural ideas that would stick on the pathway of our brain and be passed down from generation to generation.
    • Evaluating Dualism- Case for the soul
      • Plato Dualism: 1) Innate knowledge. Argues the soul explains priori and innate knowledge. Our innate knowledge of Forms suggests a soul that pre-exists.
      • Plato Dualism: The linguistic argument. Distinction between 'I have a body' and 'I have a house' suggesting we are not our bodies.
      • Descarte's Divisibilty: body separated into parts. Cannot separate 'I' consciousness into different parts.
      • Descartes doubt" cogito shows you can't doubt existence of 'I'.
    • Evaluating materialism- case against the soul
      • Neuroscience: understanding brain. Different states of consciousness. Depression tablets can alter the chemistry of our brain.
      • The Problem on interaction: dualism. How does the non physical mind interact with physical body. Ghost riding bicycle, non-physical feet cannot apply pressure.
      • Category error: Ryle argues the soul is a category mistake. Like looking around the uni and asking where the uni actually is.
      • Simplicity: physical and material events simple. Using Ockham's Razor: multiply beyond necessity.

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