Soul, mind and body (2)

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  • Created on: 07-12-20 17:02
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  • Soul, mind and body (2)
    • Gilbert Ryle
      • Rejected substance dualism and refuted Decartes'
        • Used the term 'ghost in a machine'
      • A category mistake
        • says the mind and soul cannot be something separate, they are interconnected parts of the individual you
      • may be described as a monist, but he does not call himself one
    • Aristotle
      • De Anima - on the soul
      • may be a dualist - says humans have a soul that may survive after death
        • though may be a materialist as he doesn't believe in life after death
        • may be monist - more to humans than just a physical body
          • it indubitably follows that the soul is inseparable from the body
      • says the soul is not something separate from the living thing, the soul is property of humans, not additional to the body
      • the soul is the form or essence of living things, the formal cause
        • the body is the material cause, and the soul makes up the personality and characteristics. It cannot be separate from the body
        • without the soul, the body is unintelligible. the soul enables us to fulfil our final cause  - eudaimonia
      • Aristotle said that every living thing has a soul; plants, animals and living things
      • There is a hierarchy of the soul. He argued that not all living things have the same faculties of the soul
        • -nutrition           -desire            -locomotion     -perception     -reason
        • Humans: the rational soul
        • Animals: appetitive soul
        • Plants: vegetative soul
      • Life After Death
        • did not seem to allow for the possibility of the immortal soul
        • the soul does not exist independently of the body, when the body dies, the soul dies
          • except for the 'nous'
        • he said that the faculty of reason possessed by humans souls may have eternal properties and survive death in some way
    • Richard Dawkins
      • strong atheist - 'religions are not imaginative, not poetic, not soulful'
      • science has shown that many things that we thought to be true in the past have been found to be not true
        • science has either killed the soul or is in the process of doing so
      • Dawkins thinks that the idea of the soul is a meme
        • a meme is an idea that spreads from person to person in a culture
      • rejects any concept of an immortal soul, views removed from Plato
        • he emphasises the idea of consciousness and DNA
          • the soul was invented by the ancients to explain consciousness
            • the epistemic gap - filling the gap with religion
      • soul one - traditional, religious meaning - separate to the body - science can kill soul one
      • soul two - metaphorical and symbolic - deep feeling and imagination - science cannot kill it




This is very interesting. Our body can also speak. And often he does it without asking, betraying us. I am interested in the topic of female body language, women are very mysterious creatures, and their body language can talk about many interesting things, love, sincerity, truth, lies, and so on, for more information, you can find out here,you can also turn to professional and find out what women think of you.

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