Social Control and the Criminal Justice System

  • Created by: ecotts
  • Created on: 03-04-18 15:45
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  • Social Control and the Criminal Justice System
    • The Birth of Prison
      • Foucault
        • He looked at punishment and it's relationship to the criminal justice system
          • His findings highlighted the role of prisons in the CJS
        • He focuses on the shift from Sovereign power to Disciplinary Power
      • Sovereign Power
        • Is extreme tourturing punishment to the body such as hanging, public execution etc
        • however by the end of the 18th century this type of punishment no longer took place
          • it had been replaced with Disciplinary power
      • Disciplinary Power
        • this was to try and change the offenders soul and behaviour in order to gain control
    • Disciplinary Power
      • Panopticon
        • Bentham
          • Disciplinary power was preferred in panopticon prisons
          • This is where officers could watch the prisoners from the central tower
            • however, prisoners couldn't tell if they were being watched or not because of the light
            • Therefore they had to assume they were being monitored and behave meaning they disciplined themselves
      • Foucault
        • Disciplinary power became a characteristicof modern society in which people has to monitor their own behaviour
          • this has been extended to the widespread use of CCTV, where citizens can never be sure wether they are been monitored
      • EXAMPLES
        • Mathiesen
          • 'Synopticon' everybody watches everyone else
            • This acts as a social control for everyone even powerful people
            • Mann et all
              • "sousveillance" ordinary people can film police wrong doing
                • However this is power can still control this as they can confiscate cameras
      • Criticisms
        • Has there really be a clear shift to Disciplinary power; as some countries still have the death penalty
        • Norris
          • CCTV displaces crime to places without CCTV. therefore give a false sense of reassurance for the public
    • Does imprisonment Prevent Crime?
      • The Downing Street Strategy Unit
        • a 22% increase in prisoners led to a 5% decrease in crime
        • However... 48% of prisoners released in 2010 were proven to have reoffended within 1 year
      • Boorman and Hopkins
        • Crime has a range of complex social causes
          • Many re-offenders has chaotic childhoods and experienced abuse, witnessed violent and been taken into car
          • Many have been unemployed, had housing issues or mental illnesses
      • Prisons make pre-existing issues worse
        • Destabilising family ties
        • Making employment harder to find upon release
        • Becker
          • Criminals become the master label for offenders upon their release from prison
      • However there has been a move to adopt community approaches
        • Criminals have to help complete tasks and work in the community to help improve local environment


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