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      • Manifested in the social interaction in which we engage in everyday
      • Pushes us into conformity through comments and 'looks' of others around us in our everyday lives
      • E.g local communicate institutions and schools
    • FORMAL
      • Practiced by specific social agencies which have the role of maintaining order in society
      • E.g. Criminal Justice System
    • HIRSCHI 1969
      • INFORMAL
      • "Why don't people commit crimes?" because of the strong attachments/ bonds to society
        • This attatchment depends upon the strength of social bonds that hold people to society
          • ATTACHMENT -The personal investments in our lives
          • COMMITMENT -The personal investments in our lives
          • INVOLVEMENT -Time and space we don't have for deviant and law breaking behaviour
          • BELIEF  -Sense that we should obey the rules of society
          • This suggests that increasing attachment to society by improving the 4 factors will LOWER the level of crime
      • Combines both INFORMAL and FORMAL social control to explain the changing nature of control- discipline not social control
      • Key changes in discipline and punishment over pre-to-late modernity
        • 1) Became extended and diffused throughout society, there is no longer haphazard and erratic with more agents of social control (police, PSCOs, warden)
        • 2) Discipline and punishment has moved from physical disciplineto more subtle punishments. People now internally in a way that they police themselves
      • State seeks control through the minds of the population // e.g. cognitive therapy, constant monitoring of society (CCTV)
    • COHEN
      • FORMAL
      • 3 Key themes which explain  the changing nature of formal control in Western societies
        • PENETRATION -Increasingly the law is expected to penetrate through society. This conformity and control are part of the job that schools, media and private companies are expected to engage in
        • SIZE AND DENSITY -Range of control agencies are increasing and 'processing.' Criminal justice system is constantly extending its reach into the population by devising new 'social problems' which require ever more control by the state
        • INVISIBILTYAND VISIBILITY- Tagging, CCTV, legally enforceable drug routines for the mentally ill are all part of an ever-growing and invisible net or control. This is a method to police people without being a member of the police force


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