Control, prevention and punishment: victims; the criminal justice system

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  • Control, prevention and punishment: victims; the criminal justice system
    • Situational crime prevention and community safety
      • Situational crime prevention
        • Clarke
          • People will commit crime when the costs of offending are less then the benefits obtained from offending
        • Oscar Newman
          • By changing the design of streets and housing estates, it was possible to make them safer
        • Evaluation
          • Garland
            • Ignores the causes of crime
          • Crawford and Evans
            • Some critics see it as undesirable because it creates a divided fortress society that reduces civil liberties
      • Environmental crime prevention
        • Based on Wilson and Kelling's Broken Windows Theory
        • Evaluation
          • Reiner
            • The police have been more effective in the UK by target
      • Social and community crime prevention
        • Focus on individual offenders
          • Intervention
          • Community
        • Intervention
          • Farringdon and Farringdon-west
            • Some risk factors linked to early offenders were:
              • Low income and poor housing
              • Low school attainment
              • Parental conflict
        • Evaluation
          • Ian Taylor
            • Structural inequalities in capitalist society are at eh
    • Punishment, control and the criminal justice system
      • Deterrence
        • Bringing offenders to justice and publicly punishing them will encourage potential offenders to think twice about committing crime
      • Incapacitation
        • Aimed at protecting potential victims by stopping the offender from repeating the behaviour
      • Rehabilitation
        • Changing a criminal's attitude, values and behaviour
      • Retribution
        • Society giving fair and just punishment to offenders who have done harm to others.
    • Functionalist and Marxist perspectives
      • Emile Durkheim: the nature and purpose of punishment
        • The nature of the justice system is related to the division of labour
      • Marxist perspectives on the law and punishment
        • Rusche and Kirchheimer
          • Systems of punishment corresponded to the particular economic system in which they developed
        • Melossi and Pavarin
          • Prison developed in the 17th century in order to impose discipline on workers
        • Reiman
          • Punishment is a way of enforcing laws that protect the private property of the wealthy
      • Social control and the criminal justice system
        • Michel Foucault and the birth of prison
          • Disciplinary power is a characteristic of modern society
            • Individuals had to monitor their own behaviour
      • David Garland and The Culture of Control
        • Since the 1970s there has been a shift in attitudes towards punishment
        • Evaluation
          • Alice Goffman
            • Mass imprisonment of young black men is a form of racial oppression
          • Stanley Cohen
            • social control mechanisms have become somewhat diffused and do not just involve the criminal justice system
    • Prisons, punishment and community senternces in contemporary britain
      • Prison population was 87,729 in November 20915
    • Victims of crime
      • Defining victims
        • Rob Watts, Judith Bessant and Richard Hill
          • The difference between a victim and an offender is not always clear-cut
      • Positivist victimology
        • Miers
          • Positivist victimology is concerned with factors affecting rates of victimization as measured in statistical studies
        • Evaluation
          • Highlighted the tendency for the criminal justice system to ignore victims
      • Radical and critical victimology
        • Radical victimology
          • Kuazlarich et al
            • Victims of state crime are often found among he poor and vulnerable in a society
        • Critical victimology
          • Tombs and Whyte
            • Many people are victims of corporate crime, often without realsing it
        • Evaluation
          • Radical and critical criminology compliments positivist victimology

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