Side taking

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: lucyf
  • Created on: 19-04-14 21:05
View mindmap
  • Side Taking
    • Socio-economic factors
      • 'Iceberg theory' (not real term)
        • What matters is what's going on beneath surface (ie. impersonal factors which drive people's actions)
        • Class identity and economic factors
          • Some historians argue religion = a function of class
      • King
        • Gentry
        • Aristocracy
          • Their tenants ('the rabble')
            • Gentry
      • Parliament
        • Tradesmen
        • Freeholders or Yeomen (own land)
        • 'Middle sort'
          • Especially in towns + areas of manufacture (corporations NOT industry) - skilled work
        • Puritans
      • Marxist view
        • Stages
          • Wealth based on:
            • Land (agriculture)
              • Manufacture + trade
                • Industry
          • Stages of Society:
            • Feudalism
              • Capitalism
                • Socialism
                  • Communism
          • Power held by:
            • Landholders (King, nobility, Church, etc.)
              • Bourgeoisie
                • Proletariat
        • Must have revolution to move between stages
          • Civil War = between feudalism + capitalism
    • Religion
      • Fear of Roman Catholicism
        • Deeply rooted in all levels of society
        • Deeply suspicious of King's Catholic associates
          • Feared a royal victory would mean triumph of Roman Catholicism (despite Hyde's moderate statements)
      • Fear of Presbyterianism or radical Puritan sects
        • Parliamentarians' attacks on CofE = Anglican Church in danger of being replaced
          • People disliked Laud's reforms but Anglican Church still = respected + well-liked
            • Shown by continued attendance through wars
            • Threats to even moderate bishops (ie. Bishop Hall of Norwich) swung many back to King
      • Presbyterians, Independents + religious radicals = no reason to support King, every reason to support Parliament
        • Only Parliament would give church reform they longed for
        • Parliament's armies filled with the 'godly'
    • Constitutional issues
      • Edmund Ludlow (eventually = convinced republican of radical tendencies)
        • 'the Nineteen Propositions were the principle foundation of the ensuing war'
      • Conservatives (Hyde)
        • Felt King's rights = vital to constitutional balance
          • Parliament = destroying old foundations of English law + constitution
    • Neutralism
      • Hopton (Royalist commander) 'I detest this war without an enemy'
      • Morrill = found evidence for attempts at neutrality pacts between many counties
        • Even counties ie. Norfolk (strong Parliamentarian) = showed reluctance to engage
          • Some gentry just voted money for 'defence of the county'
      • Despite support for Parliament among many London merchants - many merchant communities (Bristol, Leicester, even Puritan Norwich) = feared war
        • Would disrupt trade + raise taxes
        • Would mean capture + looting of towns (had a lot to lose)
          • So did gentry
      • Fear of anarchy ie. 30 Years War in Germany
        • Norfolk petition January 1643: warned of 'miserable spectacle of a German devastation'
      • Would mean fighting neighbours, former friends, family members
      • Choosing wrong side could = fatal
    • Localism
      • Feuds
        • In Leicestershire - long-standing feud between Grey + Hastings families
          • Lord Grey of Groby = stern Puritan = Parliament
          • Hastings = King to extend feud (hoping to destroy Greys)
            • Leicester = split between supporters of wo families
              • Lord Grey of Groby = stern Puritan = Parliament
      • Suffolk - Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston = strong Parliamentary supporter
        • Lesser gentry = used to following his lead
      • Earl Stanley of Derby forced population in area to join Royalist cause (threatened to shoot)
    • Self-interest
      • Monopolists + Customs Farmers had to support King
        • No option if they wanted any hope of retrieving their loans
    • Economic interests
      • Northampton support of Parliament = not unconnected to large boot + shoe contracts
      • Some of great territorial aristocracy = Royalist
        • Power + status derived from King + institution of kingship
        • Marquess of Newcastle spent over £900,000 on Royal cause, Marquess of Worcester over £700,000
          • Saw Parliament victory as threat to their social + political power
        • Others weren't (Warwick, Essex, Saye + Sele)
        • Majority of aristocracy supported King with varying degrees of enthusiasm
    • Interpretations
      • Contemporaries = Hyde (Moderate Royalist) + Ludlow (Puritan Republican)
      • Whig (19th C) = Outdated monarchy attempting to stop natural desire of Parliament to have more power
        • Macaulay + Gardiner
      • Marxist = rising bourgeoisie overthrowing feudal system
        • Hill + Tawney
          • Hill: Puritanism = driving force of change (emphasis on hard work + individualism)
      • Recent (last 30 years) = modified Marxist + Whig
        • Stone - decline in power + influence of aristocracy (King's natural supporters)
        • Everett = local conditions
        • Zagorin = cultural split in society
        • Hirst, Alymer, Holmes, Morrill
        • Ashton = attacked Marxism (70s) = gentry conservatives + Charles progressive
      • Revisionist = no long term causes until 1637
        • Conrad Russell + Sharpe
        • Hutton + Hirst reject more extreme revisionist ideas
  • Aristocracy
    • Their tenants ('the rabble')
    • Traditional loyalties
      • Could operate on local level - enabling leading gentry + aristocrats to get lower gentry to follow their lead
      • National level - sense that King = traditional ruler
        • Many accustomed to obey and revere
        • Whatever misgivings about conduct - idea of rebelling = unthinkable
          • Worried Parliamentarians = reassured:
            • King was in hands of 'evil counsellors' - war being fought to free him
            • War = not against kingship itself but against king who failed to live up to ideals of kingship
          • Many (ie. Sir Edmund Verney) = sympathised with Parliaments aims + had no reverence for bishops
            • Fought for King (died at Edgehill)
            • 'my conscience is only concerned to follow my master and I will not do so base a thing as to forsake him'
      • Side Taking
        • Socio-economic factors
          • 'Iceberg theory' (not real term)
            • What matters is what's going on beneath surface (ie. impersonal factors which drive people's actions)
            • Class identity and economic factors
              • Some historians argue religion = a function of class
          • King
            • Parliament
              • Tradesmen
              • Freeholders or Yeomen (own land)
              • 'Middle sort'
                • Especially in towns + areas of manufacture (corporations NOT industry) - skilled work
              • Puritans
            • Marxist view
              • Stages
                • Wealth based on:
                  • Land (agriculture)
                    • Manufacture + trade
                      • Industry
                • Stages of Society:
                  • Feudalism
                    • Capitalism
                      • Socialism
                        • Communism
                • Power held by:
                  • Landholders (King, nobility, Church, etc.)
                    • Bourgeoisie
                      • Proletariat
              • Must have revolution to move between stages
                • Civil War = between feudalism + capitalism
          • Religion
            • Fear of Roman Catholicism
              • Deeply rooted in all levels of society
              • Deeply suspicious of King's Catholic associates
                • Feared a royal victory would mean triumph of Roman Catholicism (despite Hyde's moderate statements)
            • Fear of Presbyterianism or radical Puritan sects
              • Parliamentarians' attacks on CofE = Anglican Church in danger of being replaced
                • People disliked Laud's reforms but Anglican Church still = respected + well-liked
                  • Shown by continued attendance through wars
                  • Threats to even moderate bishops (ie. Bishop Hall of Norwich) swung many back to King
            • Presbyterians, Independents + religious radicals = no reason to support King, every reason to support Parliament
              • Only Parliament would give church reform they longed for
              • Parliament's armies filled with the 'godly'
          • Constitutional issues
            • Edmund Ludlow (eventually = convinced republican of radical tendencies)
              • 'the Nineteen Propositions were the principle foundation of the ensuing war'
            • Conservatives (Hyde)
              • Felt King's rights = vital to constitutional balance
                • Parliament = destroying old foundations of English law + constitution
          • Neutralism
            • Hopton (Royalist commander) 'I detest this war without an enemy'
            • Morrill = found evidence for attempts at neutrality pacts between many counties
              • Even counties ie. Norfolk (strong Parliamentarian) = showed reluctance to engage
                • Some gentry just voted money for 'defence of the county'
            • Despite support for Parliament among many London merchants - many merchant communities (Bristol, Leicester, even Puritan Norwich) = feared war
              • Would disrupt trade + raise taxes
              • Would mean capture + looting of towns (had a lot to lose)
                • So did gentry
            • Fear of anarchy ie. 30 Years War in Germany
              • Norfolk petition January 1643: warned of 'miserable spectacle of a German devastation'
            • Would mean fighting neighbours, former friends, family members
            • Choosing wrong side could = fatal
          • Localism
            • Feuds
              • In Leicestershire - long-standing feud between Grey + Hastings families
                • Hastings = King to extend feud (hoping to destroy Greys)
                  • Leicester = split between supporters of wo families
              • Suffolk - Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston = strong Parliamentary supporter
                • Lesser gentry = used to following his lead
              • Earl Stanley of Derby forced population in area to join Royalist cause (threatened to shoot)
            • Self-interest
              • Monopolists + Customs Farmers had to support King
                • No option if they wanted any hope of retrieving their loans
            • Economic interests
              • Northampton support of Parliament = not unconnected to large boot + shoe contracts
              • Some of great territorial aristocracy = Royalist
                • Power + status derived from King + institution of kingship
                • Marquess of Newcastle spent over £900,000 on Royal cause, Marquess of Worcester over £700,000
                  • Saw Parliament victory as threat to their social + political power
                • Others weren't (Warwick, Essex, Saye + Sele)
                • Majority of aristocracy supported King with varying degrees of enthusiasm
            • Interpretations
              • Contemporaries = Hyde (Moderate Royalist) + Ludlow (Puritan Republican)
              • Whig (19th C) = Outdated monarchy attempting to stop natural desire of Parliament to have more power
                • Macaulay + Gardiner
              • Marxist = rising bourgeoisie overthrowing feudal system
                • Hill + Tawney
                  • Hill: Puritanism = driving force of change (emphasis on hard work + individualism)
              • Recent (last 30 years) = modified Marxist + Whig
                • Stone - decline in power + influence of aristocracy (King's natural supporters)
                • Everett = local conditions
                • Zagorin = cultural split in society
                • Hirst, Alymer, Holmes, Morrill
                • Ashton = attacked Marxism (70s) = gentry conservatives + Charles progressive
              • Revisionist = no long term causes until 1637
                • Conrad Russell + Sharpe
                • Hutton + Hirst reject more extreme revisionist ideas
        • Worried Parliamentarians = reassured:
          • King was in hands of 'evil counsellors' - war being fought to free him
          • War = not against kingship itself but against king who failed to live up to ideals of kingship

        Comments

        No comments have yet been made

        Similar History resources:

        See all History resources »See all English Civil War resources »