Whole Topic Mindmap

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  • Created by: katieh
  • Created on: 13-03-15 20:29
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  • Sex and Gender
    • Key Concepts
      • Sex
        • male or female
        • biological
      • Gender
        • masculine, feminine, adrodgynous
          • balance of both masculine and feminine traits
        • psychological
    • Core Theory: Biological
      • gender is decided the same time as sex
        • female chromosome XX
        • male chromosome XY
      • 6 months- hormone affects cells and organs
        • testosterone
          • testies
          • makes boys aggresive
        • oestrogen
          • ovaries
          • makes girls sensitive
      • gender roles are instinctive
      • evolution
        • females appear sensitive and caring
          • have to carry then raise young
        • males are more aggressive and competitive
          • have to fight for resources to protect family
      • Evaluation
        • ignores the idea gender roles may be learnt
        • if all men are biologically similar and all women, why do two sexes show such a range of behaviours
        • biology is relatively fixed, yet gender roles can change
    • Alternative Theory:       Psychodynamic
      • Oedipus Complex
        • boys unconsciously desire their mother but fear their mother finding out
          • castration anxiety
      • Electra Complex
        • girls unconsciously desire their father but worry about losing their mothers love
          • penis envy
        • believe they've already been castrated- hate mother
      • Freud
      • both occur in the unconscious mind- don't know it's happening
      • argues that if parents are not around- the child's gender identity doesn't develop properly
    • Core Study: Diamond and Sigmundson
      • Procedure
        • penis burnt off
          • Dr Money told parents to raise Bruce as a girl called Brenda
            • he believed upbringing made them masculine or feminine
      • Results
        • Brenda reached puberty and had masculine attributes
        • Brenda decided to live the rest of her life as a man called David
        • Diamond and Sigmundson concluded nature is more important than nurture
      • Evaluation
        • case studies rely on small samples so it is difficult to generalise
        • case studies are based on naturally occuring situations so can't control key variables
        • case studies are thorough so researchers become involved, they may stop being objective
    • Application
      • equal opportuinites for the sexes
        • is males and females are born more or less the same then we can achieve the same things
      • equal opportunities in education
        • females re doing better in both A-Levels and GCSE's
        • teachers need to find ways to cater for both male and female strengths and weaknesses


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