AQA GCSE Psychology memory mindmap

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  • Memory
    • Multistore model of memory
      • A stimulus is detected in the environment
        • It is then picked up by the sensory buffer/memory
          • If we pay attention the information enters the STM which has a capacity of 7+/-2 items and a duration of 30 seconds.
            • If we rehearse the information, it could go into our LTM which has an unlimited capacity and a duration of a lifetime.
      • Research: Bower & Springston - Chunking
        • Aim: To see if we can increase the capacity of the STM by chunking information.
          • Method: 2 groups of partcipants, one group were given chunked letters and the other group were given unchunked letters.
            • Results: The group who had chunked letters, remembered more.
              • Conclusion: Therefore chunking does increase the capaciity of the STM
                • Evaluation points: This study is educational as we learn how to increase the capacity of the STM. However it can not apply to everybody.
    • Reconstructive theory of memory
      • Bartlett said that when we retrieve stored information, it is influenced by the attitudes and feelings at the time we processed it.
        • Therefore we reconstruct our memories.
          • This could happen because of our schemas which are organised pockets of memory that hold information about a partiucular thing. Schemas change over time depending on our experiences and we often create new schemas and adapt them.
      • Research: Bartlett - War of the ghosts
        • Aim; To test out the idea that we reconstruct our memories.
          • Method: Participants had to read an old American folk take called War Of The Ghosts and pass, what they'd remembered of the story onto the next person.
            • Results: After the story had been passed around 6 times,it had changed alot. It was much shoter and more understandable.
              • Conclusion: The reason for this change was because of our schemas, therefore we are reconstructing our memories.
                • Evaluation points: Bartlett proved that we use our schemas to fill in unrelevant information. However participants could of had other things on their mind which made it hard to remember the story.
    • Levels of Processing theory of memory
      • Craik and Lockheart said that long term memories are a by-product in the way we process information.
        • They proposed 3 different levels of processing.
          • shallow - visual processing, medium - phonetic processing and deep - semantic processing.
      • Research: Craik and Tulving.
        • Aim: To test the levels of processing theory of memory.
          • Method: A series of questions were asked to each participant, 20 for each level of processing.They ere then shown a list of words and were asked to say which ones they'd seen.
            • Results: Deeper levels of processing led to better recall. Shallow was 18%, medium was 50% and deep was 80%.
              • Conclusion: The findings do support the levels of processing theory of memory.
                • Evaluation points: Results help support a better understanding of memory. However this cannot apply to everybody.


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