Russia 1906-1914: Stable or unstable?

  • Created by: J.fos
  • Created on: 14-06-18 15:52
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  • 1909-1914 economy grown at average annual rate of 3.5%
    • still sluggish compared to Russia's European rivials
    • Economical (Stable but problematic)
      • still low levels of industrial productivity
      • inflation rose by 40% between 1908-1914 but aver. wage rose 245 to 264 roubles a month
  • factories employed vast amounts of labour to compensate for lack of investment in modern tach.
    • still low levels of industrial productivity
  • Agricultural production increased
    • wager on the strong increased number of peasant households becoming independent farms rising from 42 000 in 1907 to 135 00 in 1913
      • by 1914 this figure fell to just under 98 000 suggesting peasants started to leave the land and live in urbanised areas
    • Economical (Stable but problematic)
      • inflation rose by 40% between 1908-1914 but aver. wage rose 245 to 264 roubles a month
  • Russia's railway system continued to develop. By 1914 70 160 Km  of track compared to 20 230Km in 1881
    • BUT trans-siberian railway had yet to be completed- parts of Russia still unconnected to the centre.
  • Fundamental Laws: Manifesto satisfied concerns of liberals only temporarily. Announced Laws 1906, stating "No law can come into force without his approval".
    • In other words, Nicholas determined to keep control of how the  Duma was to go about its work
    • Political (relatively stable)
      • Russia 1906-1914: Stable or unstable?
        • Social
          • 1897-1914, population increased from 125-166 million
          • Rising inflation, static wage levels + poor working conditions fuelled urban discontent
          • 1914: just over 1000 towns but only 200 had pipes and 38 had sewage systems
            • outbreak of Cholera in St Petersburg caused over 100 000 deaths
          • 1911-1914, Number of strikes listed as political rose from 25 (1911) to 2401 (1914)
            • General Strike 1914
        • Nicholas survived a number of challenges to his authrotiy- appeared to be in a strong position to deal with WWI
        • Little reason in 1914 to believe tsarism would have ended within 3 years
      • Creation of the Duma initally cause some difficulties
        • tsar reduced the authrotiy of the duma and the challenge it posed faded
          • Third Duma 1907-1912, much more cooperative with stolpin. Rendered docile by electoral system reform. But still exercise right to question ministers+ passed  important scial-reform measures.
          • Fourth Duma 1912-1914 less openly obstructive than earlier Dumas but still voiced criticism of gov. 1912 Moscow Okhrana report blamed tension on awkward and searching questions asked by the Duma
        • First Duma 1906: limited by F. Laws, became bi-cameral restricting its legislative ability. Met in mood of bitterness.
        • Second Duma, radical and anti-gov. Hostile towards Stolypin + his reforms criticised army organisation. 'the duma of the people's wrsth'
      • October Manifesto: a result  of mounting pressure from liberals. An attempt to clarify powers new legisaltive assembly would have (elected reps from 51 provinces, legalisation of political parties and trade unions, rights to freedom of assembly, worship and speech
      • Duma Radicalism- the Vyborg Appeal, anger at gov reneging on its promises. The Tsar, 'curse the Duma, this is all Witte's dong?

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