Rise of Nurredin and Growth of Jihad

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Topic One: Rise of Nurredin and Growth of Jihad
    • Rise of Nurredin in Syria
      • Damascus
        • Nurreding realised the importance of Damascus early on. The surrounding agricultural land could feed his men and the taxes from the city could pay them. Without Mosul, Damacus became vital for Nurredin
        • Unur of Damascus who had been allied with Nurredin died in August 1149. The new ruler Abaq made alliances witht he Franks of Jerusalem in order to maintain his independence from Nurredin.
          • However this alliance was unpopular.
            • Nurredin took advantage of this and blockaded Damascus. Supplies to the city became scares and the Damascenes questioned their loyalty to Abaq.
              • Eventually Abaq fled the city's citadel and Nurredin entered unopposed, bearing gifts of food.
      • Mosul
        • After the death of his father Nurredin inherited Alleppo and his elder brother Saphadin, Mosul.
          • Saphadin's death in November 1149 places a third brohter, Qutbeddin, in charge of Mosul.
            • Nurredin set out to attack his younger brother in order to take Mosul for himself. To avoid conflict his brother acknoledged Nurredin as his overlord.
      • Battle of Inab
        • June 1149 Nurredin defeated and killed Raymond of Poiters
          • He also captured Apamea and pushed Antioch's eastern border closer to the city.
          • Nurredin also defeated Raymonds allies the assassins
      • Negociated with Emperor Manuel - to held him against the Seljuks in Anatolia - put and end to the Frankish-Byzantine raids in Cilecia and Northern Syria
        • Proving Nurredin to be not only a good general but also a wily politician. Successfully stopping the threat to his Northern Borders allowing him to concentrate on Egypt.
    • Rise of Nurredin in Eygpt
      • Helping Shawar
        • In 1162 Amalric also launched his first attack, but was easily defeated. But this prompted Nurredin to take action as he did not was Almaric in control of Eygpt.
          • Nurredin sent Shirkuh (his most trusted offical) to help Shawar regain his position as vizier. Meanwhile Nurredin launch a diversary attack on Amalric in the North and Shirkuh swiftly took Eygpt and restored Shawar.
            • However trouble began to stir as Shawar could not pay Nurredin. Thus turned to Amalric to remove Shirkuh and his troops from Eygpt.
              • Amalric was keen to interfere and the two armies met in summer 1164 near Bilbays without a conclusive victory.
                • The two armies met again in 1167. Both eeking Egypt for themselves. Shirkuh managed to suprise Amalric and Shawar's forces and he appealed to Shawar to switch sides.
                  • Shirkuh launched a surprise attack on Alexandria and left his nephew, Saladin, in charge while he moved on to attack Ciaro.
                    • However by this point both armies were tired and the outcome was again inconclusive.
                      • Shawar's popularity plumented and the Caliph turned to Nurredin to ask for help, sending locks of his wife's hair. Thus again Shirkuh led and army to Eygpt in the company of his nephew.
                        • Amalric too marched to Eygpt and slaughtered the inhabitants of Bilbays. Leading to the people of Ciaro defending their city with all the might they could muster.
                          • But when Shirkuh set out for Eygp Amalric withdrew realisihg he could be cause between the two forces.
                            • Shirkuh entered Ciaro in triumph and was proclaimed vizier.
                              • Shawar was arrested and executed.
      • Saladin
        • Shirkuh died only weeks after taking Ciaro and his nephew Salladin took his place.
        • Saladin was an upstart and many in Nurredin's army did not like him so returned to Damascus leaving him short of men.
          • However with brutality and loyal soldiers he clung on to rule Eygpt as vizier.
            • He faced one last attempt by Amalric for control of Egypt. A combined Frankish Byzantine assault was launched in October 1169 as Mauel had become concerned  at the extent of Nurredin's domains.
              • However the attack failed due to supplies running low and it was called off.
                • Saladin joined Nurredin to attack some Frankish castles but the two men rarely worked together.
                • Egypt slipped into Saladin's hands through his careful positoning of family members.
                  • Nurredin was threatened and began to prepare for conflict. The two armies were shaping up for vonflict but in May 1174 Nurredin died.
                    • Though Nurredin's successor was not initially clear it turned out to be Saladin.
    • The Growth of Jihad
      • Nurredin's appeal
        • Nurredin continually promoted himself as a mujahin, a warrior of the jihad.
          • He was not only a courageous fighter and able general, with the military qualities to lead the jihad, but was also pious.
        • He used a team of propagandaists to ensure his message reached every corner of Syria
          • The message was simple.
            • He promoted one religion, the religion of Sunni Islam and intended  to defeat its enemies whetther they were of a different religion of heretical within Islam.
              • His intention was to unite  all Muslims in the jihad against the Franks and the liberation of Jerusalem.
      • Method
        • He promoted and financed at range of good works including, religious houses, educational establishments, hospices, hospitals and retreats.
          • Organised public readings in mosques and schools extolting the virtues of Jerusalem.
            • This speaches also praised his own efforts and piety.
              • He renounced alcohol.
              • Wore plain, rough cloth.
              • Prayed battles would be won for Islam not himself.
              • Following his illness went on hajj
              • Poems and books were written ato win over the sympathy of the faithful and force leaders to rally to his banner.
              • He left an imprint on every town he conquered, an imprint of a fair and just rule.
        • Instead of make himself rich at the expance of his subjects he made a virtue out of poverty
          • His subjects knew he meant it because he reduced or abolished many taxes in his lands.


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Age of the Crusades resources »