Causes of the Second Crusade

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  • Created by: holly231
  • Created on: 03-09-18 19:56
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  • Causes of the Second Crusade
    • Family duties
      • Pope Eugenius issued the Papal Bull Quantum Praedecessores which called upon people to go on a crusade
        • This appealed to the strong family honor of the time
          • People didn't want to fail or betray their predecessors, especially given how miraculous the success of the First Crusade was
    • Jerusalem
      • The second crusade was triggered by the Muslim recapture of Edessa
        • People feared that Jerusalem was the next to come
      • However, this crusade was on three fronts - the Near East, the Baltic, and Iberia
        • So was Jerusalem the focus point for a war more about the rising threat of Islam than anything else?
    • Economic gain
      • This was the first time that Kings had gone on a crusade
        • Going was a risky journey, and these Kings risked losing their lands while away
      • After the First Crusade, some people gained land, for example in Edessa. This became the Outremer
        • Did people simply want to defend the crusader states and establish a strong Christian base where previously it had been threatened by internal divisions?
          • Causes of the Second Crusade
            • Family duties
              • Pope Eugenius issued the Papal Bull Quantum Praedecessores which called upon people to go on a crusade
                • This appealed to the strong family honor of the time
                  • People didn't want to fail or betray their predecessors, especially given how miraculous the success of the First Crusade was
            • Jerusalem
              • The second crusade was triggered by the Muslim recapture of Edessa
                • People feared that Jerusalem was the next to come
              • However, this crusade was on three fronts - the Near East, the Baltic, and Iberia
                • So was Jerusalem the focus point for a war more about the rising threat of Islam than anything else?
            • Economic gain
              • This was the first time that Kings had gone on a crusade
                • Going was a risky journey, and these Kings risked losing their lands while away
              • After the First Crusade, some people gained land, for example in Edessa. This became the Outremer
                • Did people simply want to defend the crusader states and establish a strong Christian base where previously it had been threatened by internal divisions?
              • Religion
                • The first crusade had been a miraculous success and was seen as the divine will of God
                  • So the thought of not protecting Jerusalem and ensuring that it stayed in Christian hands was frightful
                    • This is most significant when we consider how the Second Crusade was a bit of a 'flop'. In contrast, the Third Crusade had a real purpose in terms of gaining Jerusalem back, as it was triggered by the loss of Jerusalem in the Battle of Hattin
                • People remained terrified of God. There was a sense that 'taking up the cross' was a most serious religious oath
                • The Church reform movement
                  • Pope Gregory VII had been successful in building new parish churches and increasing piety across Latin Europe
                • Like in the First Crusade, many crusaders were spurred on by teachings from Bernard of Clairvaux and the Papal Bull to crusade.
                  • They had been convinced of the privileges they would receive as a result
              • The Church reform movement
                • Pope Gregory VII had been successful in building new parish churches and increasing piety across Latin Europe
              • The rising islamic threat
                • The Muslim world was still fairly divided
                  • However there was still a significant fear of Islam at play
                    • Zengi slaughtered Christians and sparked a fear that a domino effect would occur with the next crusader states
                      • The Second Crusade didn't occur until this happened - perhaps the rising threat of Islam was not significant until it threatened the more important things, such as Jerusalem
                  • Zengi increasingly, as a ruthless leader, extended his control over Iraq and southern Syria
                    • However, it was not until the 1140s that he focused his attention on the Outremer
                      • The Second Crusade didn't occur until this happened - perhaps the rising threat of Islam was not significant until it threatened the more important things, such as Jerusalem
                • Zengi increasingly, as a ruthless leader, extended his control over Iraq and southern Syria
                  • However, it was not until the 1140s that he focused his attention on the Outremer
                  • There was a deepening support at this time for the idea of jihad, or Islamic holy war
        • Religion
          • The first crusade had been a miraculous success and was seen as the divine will of God
            • So the thought of not protecting Jerusalem and ensuring that it stayed in Christian hands was frightful
              • This is most significant when we consider how the Second Crusade was a bit of a 'flop'. In contrast, the Third Crusade had a real purpose in terms of gaining Jerusalem back, as it was triggered by the loss of Jerusalem in the Battle of Hattin
          • People remained terrified of God. There was a sense that 'taking up the cross' was a most serious religious oath
          • Like in the First Crusade, many crusaders were spurred on by teachings from Bernard of Clairvaux and the Papal Bull to crusade.
            • They had been convinced of the privileges they would receive as a result
        • The rising islamic threat
          • The Muslim world was still fairly divided
            • However there was still a significant fear of Islam at play
              • Zengi slaughtered Christians and sparked a fear that a domino effect would occur with the next crusader states
            • There was a deepening support at this time for the idea of jihad, or Islamic holy war

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