Causes of the Third Crusade (changes only)

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  • Created on: 03-09-18 20:21
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  • Causes of the Third Crusade (changes only)
    • Economics
      • Richard the Lionheart
        • Richard and Phillip decided to share any profits they made from the crusades equally, which later caused great issues for the two – could this indicate that there was an economic motivation for the kings of this Third Crusade after they saw how the princes of the First Crusade had successfully acquired land in the Outremer [Crusader states].
        • Richard stayed in Sicily to gather money and resources, before invading Cyprus and selling the island to the Templars.
    • Religion
      • Jerusalem
        • The role of Jerusalem in the Third Crusade differed to that of the Second and First Crusades
        • After the Battle of Hattin, Jerusalem was in Muslim hands and no longer Christian
        • Unlike in the First Crusade, Jerusalem had only just been lost from Christian control. This was a striking blow to the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox worlds
        • Jerusalem was significant as the site of Jesus' crucifixion
        • The Battle of Hattin was a clear turning point, as Christians had now abandoned their 'duty' to keep control of Jerusalem as God had shown he wished, through enabling the success of the First Crusade
        • However, if we look at the outcome, the Crusaders made a deal with Saladin to enable continued Muslim control of Jerusalem on the promise that Christian practices and  pilgrimages could still occur.
          • Were they out of options? Or was Jerusalem not as significant as made out to be?
          • It took six years and a new pope for a Fourth Crusade to take Jerusalem back forever
      • There was a genuine sense that this was the ticket to heaven, and people took taking on the cross seriously. Given the role of religion and Pope Gregory VII's success with the increase of piety in his church reform movement, this is unsurprising.
    • Jerusalem
      • The role of Jerusalem in the Third Crusade differed to that of the Second and First Crusades
      • After the Battle of Hattin, Jerusalem was in Muslim hands and no longer Christian
      • Unlike in the First Crusade, Jerusalem had only just been lost from Christian control. This was a striking blow to the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox worlds
      • Jerusalem was significant as the site of Jesus' crucifixion
      • The Battle of Hattin was a clear turning point, as Christians had now abandoned their 'duty' to keep control of Jerusalem as God had shown he wished, through enabling the success of the First Crusade
      • However, if we look at the outcome, the Crusaders made a deal with Saladin to enable continued Muslim control of Jerusalem on the promise that Christian practices and  pilgrimages could still occur.
        • Were they out of options? Or was Jerusalem not as significant as made out to be?
        • It took six years and a new pope for a Fourth Crusade to take Jerusalem back forever
    • Rising Islamic Threat
      • Nur Ad-Din had greatly strengthened the Muslim world and fixed the divide between Sunni and Shi'a Muslims in the Near East
      • Saladin was an impressive leader who took over Egypt and then Jerusalem in the Battle of Hattin
      • Muslim belief in jihad increased dramatically in the period
    • Phillip and Richard had a fierce rivalry, and neither would set out on a crusade unless they were sure the other one had already gone – the crusade was a threat to their control over their Kingdom, and so there had to be significant other motivators to get these men to move.

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