Refraction of light

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  • Refraction of light
    • is
      • the bending effect of light due to the change in its speed when it travels through a different optical mediums
    • obeys
      • Laws of refraction
        • The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal all lie on the same plane
        • The ratio        sin i/sin r is a contant
          • i=angle of incidence r=angle of refraction
          • Snell's law
      • Refractive index (n)
        • n=sin i / sin r
          • sin i=vacuum or air, sin r=medium
        • n=c/v
          • c=speed in vacuum (3.0X10^8) v=speed in medium
        • n=real depth / apparent depth
      • Critical angle and total internal refraction
        • sin c=n1/n2
          • c=critical angle, n1&n2 =refractive index
        • total internal refraction occurs when
          • light rays pass from a denser medium to a less dense medium
          • angle of incidence in the denser medium is greater than the critical angle
    • Applications of total internal reflection
      • uses of prisms in optical instruments
        • periscope and binoculars
      • Use of optical fibres in telecommunic- ation and medical instruments


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