Reasons for the failure of the 1848 Revs

  • Created by: lilya
  • Created on: 26-01-21 15:04
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  • Reasons for the failure of the 1848 Revs
    • Situation in Austria
      • fate of rev dependent on outcome of Austrian power struggle
      • Summer 48: Austrain forces crushed uprisings in Prague and N.Italy
      • Oct 48: 2000 people died in Vienna
      • Austrian Emperor abdicated in Dec and by mid 49, forced had regained control of Aus Empire
      • Dissolved Aus Assembly, subjected all of Empire to control from Vienna
      • 1850: as it nothing had happened, 51 was complete restoration to old order
    • Situation in Prussia
      • Libs defeated by late 48
      • King Wilhelm committed himself to Conservatives
      • Police powers increase and local govt power reduced
      • 3 class suffrage ensured there was no real democracy in lower house
    • Failure of Revs across Europe
      • High hopes of Spring 1848 revolutionaries had dies by 1849
      • 1849 forces of reaction were in power...
      • Austria, Prussia and Russia continues to dominate central and E.Europe
    • Limited Revolution
      • Active revolution was RARE
      • Prussia: restricted to riots in Berlin and unrest in Rhineland
      • Small states: peasants attacked landlords, castles and property were destroyed
      • Most rev activity didnt involve armed uprisings - mainly peaceful demonstration and petitions
    • Revolutionary Divisions
      • wide differences in political aims of liberals and radicals
        • liberals = constitutional govt in all states and United empire w national parliament
        • radicals = complete social and political change within a republican framework
      • Nationalists also disunified: unified vs federal, monarchy vs republic, klein vs gross
      • diff social groups had diff interests... middle class vs working class
        • WC purely practical
    • Rural apathy
      • 1847/48 harvests were reasonably good
      • Unenthusiastic support amongst peasants and farm workers
      • felt hostility rather than affinity to urban revolutionists
    • Loss of support
      • after a few months, active support for national unity had disappeared
      • encourages by Frankfurt Parliament
      • general consciousness failed to develop among mass of Germans
    • Conservative Strengths
      • Berlin - well trained army, loyal to King
      • Enemy stronger, better organised and had military power
      • Constitutional govt and unity only achieved on THEIR terms
      • once order restored, Austrian policy still based on dominating Germany by keeping it weak and divided


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