The Army and Conquest during the Consulate and Empire

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  • Created by: lou9119
  • Created on: 05-03-18 19:47
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  • Army and Conquest during the Consulate and Empire
    • N needed military success to consolidate his Consulship.
      • He crossed the Alps and defeated Austrians at Marengo in June 1800. His popularity increased but the Austrians were only willing to negotiate peace after  another defeat at Bavaria in Dec.
        • With the 2nd coalition destroyed EN was prepared to negotiate. The Peace of Amiens was agreed in Mar 02 but did not last. In the interim N failed to recapture the Caribbean colony of Saint-Domingue and sold Louisiana to the US.
    • War of the 3rd Coalition (1803-06)
      • War broke out in May and the coalition formed by 05.
        • The Russian Tsar was angered by the shooting of the Duc d'Enghien and French actions in GE.
        • Austrians were angered by French expansion in IT.
        • N's plans to invade BR were destroyed by the defeat at Trafalgar in Oct 05.
        • Nov-Jan N won a series of victories over the Austrians at Ulm in Oct 05 and the Austrians & Russians at Austerlitz in Dec 05. Russians retreated and Austria agreed a separate peace; giving FR control of Northern IT.
    • War of the 4th Coalition (1806-07)
      • War with Prussia provoked by N's attempts to improve the continental system and their influence in GR.
        • Prussia was defeated in battles of Jena and Auerstadt in Oct 06.
      • N advanced through POL to attack RUS and won the battles of Eylau (Feb 07) and Friedland (June 07)
        • The significance of Eylau with a great slaughter was that it showed RUS could withstand his attack. N was able to force Russia's tsar Alexander I and Prussia to negogiate the Treaty of Tilsit (Jul 07)
      • Would eventually divide EU between French and Russian Empires.
    • Reasons for Military Success by 08
      • Napoleon
        • Able.
        • Inspired personal devotion, utilised Bulletins and Order of the Days.
        • Organised armies to combine flexibility with command. (corps)
        • Utilised new aggressive tactics such as deploying infantry in lines and making units on the march independent so they could live off the land and move quickly.
        • Controlled everything, generals obeyed.
        • Good decisions on the battlefield.
      • Enemies
        • Superior combined forces of the coalitions were hampered by their failure to co-ordinate. Separate aims.
        • Arnies lacked good artillery and their tactics were old fashioned and static.
      • Grand Armee
        • Created by N between 01-05; building upon the mass conscript armies of the Rev.
          • Size, morale, organisation, enthusiasm was superior to that of any of the enemies, officers were better (promotion by merit)

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