Italian Unification



  • Napoleon defeated. 
  • Congress of Vienna- old order restored - high Aust. influence
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Jan - Revolt in Naples

  • Inspired by Rev in Spain, caused by decrease in Pub. Spending and Censorship
  • Carbonari major force 
  • Gov. troops joined in
  • July - Ferdinand agrees to consitution
  • Oct - New Parliament agrees to force needed to keep Sicily
  • Troppau Protocol issued by Metternich
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  • Ferdinand denounces constitution and asks for Aust. help
  • March - Aust. forced enter Naples


  • Carboanri massive boom. Rev. Gov set up Alessandria by Carbonari
  • Army mutiny in Turin
  • Victor Emmanuel 1 abdicates in favour of Charles Felix
  • C. F absent so Charles Albert regent
  • C. A gives constitution which was rejected when C. F returned with Aust. troops 1821
  • Pied. occupied by Aust. forces until 1831
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Modena and Parma

  • Rising in Modena 
  • Parma underwent Rev due to Modena - joint army command over both 
  • Old ruler returned with Aust. troops

Papal States

  • Prov. Gov. formed Feb
  • Aust. troops quickly defeated revs
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Success and Failures of 1820-32

  • Revs. weakened by limited communication
  • Old rivalries between states
  • Relied on small armies set up by Carbonari
  • Mainly middle class - no W.C involvment
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Pope Pius IX elected:

  • Freer Press
  • Civic Guard
  • Council of State

Caused Piedmont and Tuscany to abolish press censorship

  • Proposals made for Customs Union with Pap. States
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  • Rising repression and cholera outbreak
  • Jan - armed uprising
  • Demanded independance
  • Sept - defeated by Naples' army 


  • Uprising spread to Naples
  • Mass support led to King Ferdinand 3 giving consitution after Pap. States refused Aust. to cross territory
  • Peasant grievences over right to land led to battle where Ferd's forces won- Rev failed


  • Charles Albert now in power - give Statuto - created parliamentry monarchy
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March 1848

Metternich resigns - signal for revs. to spread


  • Tobacco Boycott turned into Rev. (17-22 March)
  • General Radetzky withdrew to Aust. to deal with domestic problems


  • Daniel Manin overthrows gov. Venetia votes for union with Pied. 
  • Goes to war with Aust. after Prov. Gov. of Milan asked for help from Pied.  
  • Lombardy invaded - troops from all over Italy came to help inc. Pope's army commander
  • Pied. forces defeated in May at Custozza - Fighting ended Armistice of Salasco
  • Pied withdraws from Lombardy


  • Allocution made it clear he wasnt interested in unification
  • Caused many movements to turn anti-clerical
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  • Nov. 1848-Pope fled Rome due to mass opposition and rioting. Rev. Gov set up
  • March 1849 - Mazzini elected head of triumvirate that ran city
  • Pope appealed to France who took over Rome June 1849


  • March - C. A decided to re-enter war. Revenge or time to regroup? Defeated battle of Novara
  • Abdicated to son, Victor Emmanuel 2

Venetian States

  • August - surrendered by Aust. after shelling and cholera outbreak


  • Aust. army defeated new dictatorship
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Reasons for 1848 failure

Lack of Unity

  • Lack of co-opm - dispute between Naples and Sicily
  • C. A wouldnt accept volunteers from other states unless declared loyalty to him
  • Divided aims between libs. and rads.
  • No universal leader to support

Lack of Popular Support

  • Inexperianced, weak and poor resources of local govs
  • Peasants no better off under new govs - no support from peasantry

Lack of International allies

  • Aust. superior in numbers, better equiped
  • Pope's actions turned surounding Catholic countries against Revs.

Hope for Piedmont

  • Refugees came from all over Italy to Liberal Piedmont - place to be as rich culture

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Cavour made Prime Minister 1852

  • Under Cavour, trade value of Pied up by 300%
  • Railways envy of Italy
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  • Piedmont sent troops to support British and French in Crimea
  • Used to get Pied recognised by Great Powers
  • Hoped to gain seat in peace conference after
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Paris Peace Conference

  • Cavour attended by took little part 
  • Made aquaintance with Louis Nap 3
  • Invited to Plombieres
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Orsini Affair

  • Jan - attempted assasination against Nap 3
  • Letter from Count Orsini (ringleader) read out in court urging Nap to help Italy
  • Contents may been written be by Nap, deffs published by Nap
  • Gave him excuse for intervention in Italy
  • Agreed to support Piedmont only if Aust. seen as aggressor
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Preperations for War

  • Cav phsyc. prepared Pied. with anti-Aust speeches - widespread nationalism
  • March - mobilised Pied army
  • C. A hoping Aust would declare war as Nap getting cold feet

Declarations of War

  • April - Aust. said Pied needed to stand down. Had own army mob. but couldnt afford to keep it so
  • 29 April - Aust decalres war when Cav refuses to comply
  • Nap supports Vic Emman


  • French arrived in Lombardy by train - poorly equipped as bandages/ammo hadnt arrived yet
  • Magenta June - Aust. defeated by Pied and F troops
  • Another defeat for Aust. at Solerino
  • Lots of wounded, put Nap off war
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1859 cont.


  • War only 7 weeks long 
  • August -Nap signs treaty with Franz Joseph (Aust.) as feared Prussia would invade F. in army's absense. Did not like war. Unhappiness in France - Nap didnt trust Cavour (Aust.)
  • Pied recieves Lombardy - first given to France then to Vic. E to save humiliation for Aust
  • Previous leaders of Modena, Parma and Tuscany restored after peaceful revs
  • Aust still kept Venetia

Resignation of Cavour

  • Annoyed Aust. still controlled Venetia, and arrangements for Tusc, Parm, Mod
  • July - Resigned when King wouldnt continue war 

Expanded Piedmont

  • Tuscany, August - rigged assembly voted for annexation by Pied
  • Modena and Parma also - not put into effect as Villafranca. Pro-Pied gov ruled instead
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  • Cav. returned as PM
  • March - Tuscany and Emilia (new state of Mod and Par) voted union with Pied
  • March - Nice and Savoy given to F. after rigged vote by residents to keep F. happy
  • Garibaldi as memeber of P. parliament preparing expedition to reclaim when heard of Sicily


  • May - Garibaldi and Thousand land on Sicily hearing of insurrection, didnt have support of Cav - refused to give equipment
  • Defeated 25,000 Neo. army with 3,000 men
  • Introduced Pied. law systemv to prepare for annexation by Pied. Not annex yet as wanted forward base for Nap. campaign
  • Aug. - Garibaldi lands on Naples, dodging ships sent by Cav. to stop him. Ferdinand 2 fled. Not able to march on Rome as Neo. stonghold in way. Gave C. time to act
  • Sept. - Pied troops invade Papal states to stop leadership of Italy going to G
  • Oct. - Garibaldi handed over S. Italy  to Vic. E at Teano 
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1861 - Cavour dies

Garibaldi and Rome

  • G. collected 3,000 volunteers to take Rome
  • Had support of Vic. E, not Pied gov. 
  • New Pied PM planned similar coup in 1860 but F. wouldnt agree
  • G. failed and army scattered
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  • Italy signed treaty with Prussia - if Pru. went to war with Aust, so would Italy
  • June - Nap signed treaty with Pru. -  As France neutral in war it would gain Venetia
  • Nap also signed treaty with Aust saying if A. won, Venetia would be given to F. then Italy
  • June - Piedmont defeated early in war at Custoza
  • August - Peace of Prague Aust handed over Venetia to F., Nap then gave it to Italy
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Garibaldi and Rome Second Attempt

  • Sept 1864 - Italian gov. agrees to protect Rome and move capital from Turin (Pied) to Florence (Tuscany) - shows rulers didnt want Rome as capital
  • Dec 1866 last of French troops leave Rome
  • G escapes house arrest to command men
  • Hoped would be helped by those in anti-clerical revolts - didnt happen
  • French sent troops with new rifles - easily defeats G.
  • French back in Rome 

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Franco-Prussian war. French troops taken out of Rome. 

1 Sept - Italian gov waited after Nap imprisoned

Vic. E wanted to rescue Nap but Italian gov wouldnt let him

8 Sept - V. E offered Pope to give up temp. power and Rome as capital, but remain of Cath. faith and protect. by Italy

11 Sept - Pope declines. 6000 Italian troops sent into Rome. Papal soldiers fight back

20 Sept - V. E enters Rome. Becomes Capital of Italy after citizens vote heavily in favour. Kingdom of Italy complete

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