Viscount Palmerston   1859-65       Earl John Russel 1865-66

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  • Viscount Palmerston   1859-65       Earl John Russel 1865-66
    • What were the 3-5 Main areas of Foreign Policy
      • Poland 1863. Poles in Russia broke into revolution, Russian response was cruel and Palmerston protested to the Tsar about the brutal treatment, however after refusing Napoleons European Congress, no helped arrived for the Poles and they were crushed with great Cruelty. This was seen as Palmerstons first obvious failure in Foreign Affairs
      • Alabama incident 1862. South ordered ships from British boatyards, the North argued this was in breach of 1819 Foreign Enlistment Act. North wanted compensation however Russell denied any involvement and refused to pay.
      • 1861 Trent Incident. Two confederate agents seized on a ship heading towards Europe. In breach of international laws and insult to British flag. Palmerston wrote strongly worded letters, sent troops to Canada and feelings ran high on both sides. Prince Albert convinced Palmerston to tone down and Lincoln gave way to demands.
      • Italian Unification 1859-60.  When Austria tried to send in troops to prevent Italy forming a Unions Palmerston intervened and the Austrians decided against sending in troops.in 1860 British ships protected an invasion force led by Garibaldi to capture Sicily. Napoleon threatened to stop Garibaldi but didn't dare move against the British fleet. This was seen as his last great success. The Reform League in 1865 came from supporters of Garibaldi.
      • Government of India Bill 1858. This transferred control of British India from the British East India Company to the crown.
    • 3-5 Main areas of Social/Domestic Policy
      • The Sanitation Act 1866. This realised the 1848 Act had failed and this compelled local authorities to improve local conditions, and remove cesspits and excrement. according to The Times  this introduced a new "sanitary Era".
      • The Offences Against The Person Act 1861.This simplified the law on violent crimes such as ABH GBH, still used today.
    • Policy Towards Ireland
      • Had to deal with outbreaks of Fenian violence in Ireland in 1865. he ordered the viceroy of Ireland to deal with the violence even a possible suspension of trial-by-jury and a monitoring of Americans travelling to Ireland
    • How 'popular' was this Ministry?
      • He was immensely popular with the general public as his strong Foreign policy however he was sometimes considered arrogant and abusive and Queen Victoria described him as "rash"
    • What were the main reasons for this Ministry being elected?
      • The Conservative Party was still in disarray after Peels Corn Law Reforms in 1846. This meant the Conservative party were weaker and the Liberals stronger as many Peelites joined the Liberals
    • What were the major reasons for this Ministry ending?
      • Palmerstons death in 1865.
      • Lack of Domestic reforms
      • Palmerston seemed to be out of touch in the last few years of his ministry and failed to see Bismarck, not Napoleon III was likely to be the main threat to the balance of power.
    • What were the overriding priorities for this ministry? did they achieve their aims?
  • 3-5 Main areas of Social/Domestic Policy
    • The Sanitation Act 1866. This realised the 1848 Act had failed and this compelled local authorities to improve local conditions, and remove cesspits and excrement. according to The Times  this introduced a new "sanitary Era".
    • The Offences Against The Person Act 1861.This simplified the law on violent crimes such as ABH GBH, still used today.

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