Problems with Energy Pathways

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  • Problem with Energy Pathways
    • Patterns
      • Oil has a complex global pattern of pathways and players
        • The Middle East exports around 15000 barrels per day- mainly to Japan, Europe and China
        • Substantial amounts flow from Africa, Canada and South and Central Asia to USA
        • Russia supplies some oil to china, but most goes to Europe
      • Gas pathways are different in that they tend to be localised and regional rather than global
        • Traditionally gas is transported through pipelines, where as oil by ship
        • Possible future - as movement through pipeline becomes less dependable, there is a switch towards shipping gas in tankers
    • Physical and human causes of disruption
      • Long running tensions in the Middle East e.g. destruction of oil wells during Iraq war
      • Hurricane Katrina '05 affected oil production and refining in Gulf of Mexico - rise in prices
      • In '05 - explosions and fires at Buncefield Oil  Storage Depot destroyed fuel worth £10 million
      • 2006-2008 disputes between Russia and Ukraine disrupted gas supplies to Western Europe
    • Trans-Siberian Pipeline
      • Proposed in 1978 as an export pipeline from Russia to Europe
      • Pipeline was constructed in 1982-1984
      • Pipeline runs from Siberia's gas field to Uzhgorod in Western Ukraine
    • Trans-Alaskan pipeline
      • Crosses 4 mountain ranges and several large rivers
      • Issues of permafrost and to avoid this pipelines are built above ground


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