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Other problems faced
· Initial route ran too close to northern tip of
Lake Baikal and there were fears of oil spills
· Cost has ballooned because of rising steel
prices and the challenge of building in soils
affected by differing permafrost conditions…read more

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Energy pathways
· refer to the flow of energy from a producers
and the means by which it reaches the
· Energy pathways can be contentious, since
routes many be complicated by: natural or
environmental issues
· Human or political issues.…read more

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Geopolitics and the ESPO pipeline
· China's needs .v. Japans needs
· China needs increasing amounts of energy to
fuel economic growth
· The main energy pathway for China's exisiting
oil supplies is vulnerable
· China and Russia have a joint political interest
over the issue of US military presence in
Central Asia and the Middle East.…read more

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Geopolitics and the ESPO pipeline
· China's needs .v. Japan's needs
· Japan has almost no oil reserves of its own
· Worlds 3rd largest oil consumer
· In 2007, Japan imported 76% of its oil from
the Middle East; very oil dependent
· Japan also wants to engage with Russia and
increase its economic and political influence.…read more

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Energy Pathways
· Can be complex and they face risk and
disruption as a result of both physical and
human causes.
· In 1991 Iraqi troops retreating from Kuwait set
fire to over 600 Kuwaiti oil wells. Major effect
of Kuwait's oil production
· 2005, Hurricane Katrina affected oil
production and refining in the Gulf of Mexico…read more

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