Politics in War Time

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  • Politics In Wartime
    • the 1915 Coalition
      • Shell Scandal
        • shortage of shells o the western front
        • conservatives threatened to go against liberals
        • press threatened to stop support
      • all-party coalition
      • May 1915
      • not efficient
        • 23 ministers
        • could not make quick decisions
      • most key positions held by Liberals
      • by 1916 conservative had fully withdrawn support for Asquith
      • December 1916 - Lloyd George suggests a smaller war cabinet
      • 3rd December 1916 - Asquith resigns from the cabinet and alows Lloyd George to form smaller cabinet
        • 4th December - Asquith demands to be part of war cabinet
          • Lloyd George resigns from coalition
            • 5th December - conservative members also resign
              • 5th December - Asquith resigns as Prime Minister
                • 6th December - Lloyd George becomes Prime Minister
                  • Lloyd George creates new cabinet
                    • 5 members
                      • mostly conservative
      • viewed as patriotic and effective
    • Lloyd George
      • Lloyd George Fall
        • Llyd George was Prime Minister in a weak position
          • Leader of a severely divided party
          • relied on previous opposition
        • Honours scandal
          • 1922
          • Accused Lloyd George of selling peerages to finance his own political party
            • Peerage is a titleas a lord which gives you hereditary rights to sit in the house of lords
        • economic depression
        • cuts in government spending
        • increasing trade unon activity
          • 86 million working days lost in 1921
        • trouble in Ireland
        • May 1921 Bonar Law resigns due to ill health
          • weakens Lloyd Georges position
        • Chanak Affair
          • foreign policy crisis
            • Accused of ordering troops into action without consulting the coalition
        • October 1922 by-election gave conservatives confidence that they could win an election without Lloyd George coalition
          • including Bonar Law
          • Lloyd George resigns
          • October 1922 election
            • Conservatives 330
            • Liberals 116
            • Labour 142
      • supported the coalition
      • understood the demands of the Home Front
      • 1914 - Minister of Munitions
      • 1916 - Secretary of War
      • 1908 - Chancellor of the Exchequer
      • 1916 - Prime Minister
      • Untitled
    • Bonar Law
      • Close relationship with Lloyd George, was confided in by George
      • raised £600 million via a war loan campaign
        • 1917
      • Resigns due to ill health in May 1921
    • Liberal Division
      • many Liberals not happy with conscription
        • 1916
      • further divides during the Maurice debate
        • February 1918
        • General Maurice claimed the British army had lied about the strength of the British army
      • After his resignation Liberal members still saw Asquith as their leader
        • 2/3 Liberals supported Asquith
        • 1/3 supported Lloyd George
        • still pledged to support the government in conduct of war
        • mny viewed George as a traitor
    • the Labour Party
      • the 1918  Labour constitution
        • policies for post-war Britain
        • February 1918
        • Party would be composed of various affiliated groups
          • trade unions
          • socialist societies
          • co-operative societies
          • Local Labour parties
        • managed by 23 members
          • elected at annual party conference
        • Clause VI
          • "means of production, distribution and exchange" was to be taken over by government
        • trade unions have more power
      • almost split at the end of 1914 due to divided beliefs in the international cooperation of the working class
        • Ramsay MacDonald refused to support the war
        • Arthur Henderson and most Labour supporters supported war
      • Aurthur Henderson was the first Labour to get a place in the cabinet
      • had an influence in social policy
      • fixed war time rents at prewar level
      • price controls set in place in 1917
      • excess profits duty in 1915
      • left coalition when Arthur Henderson was refused entrance to the Stockholm Conference
        • looking at ways to bring about a negotiated peace
    • 1918 'coupon' election
      • Those who fought in the election for conservative/George's Liberals got a coupon
      • larger electorate due to the Representation of the People Act
        • February 1918
        • tripled electorate
      • December 1918
      • Results
        • Conservatives 344
        • Asquiths Liberals 62
        • Lloyd George's Liberals 53
        • Labour 142
      • The new coalition government
        • depended on conservative support
        • Lloyd George remained Prime Minister but in a weak position
        • 1918 Education Act
          • raised school leaving age to 14
          • gave LEA's money to increase teacher wages
        • 1919 Addison's Housing Act
          • obliges all local Authorities to ensure decent housing
        • 1920 Unemployment act extended
          • covered a further 12 million people
        • 1920 Agriculture Act
          • maintaining war time prices of wheat and oats
    • Britain declared war on Germany 4th August 1914
      • Liberal crisis seemed to vanish
    • DORA
      • 8th August 1914
      • Defence of the Realm act
      • gives the state unprecedented level of control over peoples lives
      • Acts did not have to pass through parliament
      • passed without debate
      • censorship
      • 1916 - conscription
      • 1918 - rationing

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