Paper 1 Case Study 1: Japanese expansion in east asia

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  • Japan
    • Mukden Incident = Bomb goes off on Japanese railway, excuse for invasion of Manchuria
      • Chinese government doesn't do very much because 1. Chiang Kai-Shek (military commander) more invested in eradicating communists who are internal opposition, and dont have military firepower
        • Tanguu Truce gives Japan Manchuko and Japan repeatedly violates it
      • Chinese government appeals to LoN who issue Lytton commission to investigate
        • Lytton report says that though they did help Manchuko financially, no sign of independent state. LoN orders Japan to remove troops from China, which she does not, and withdraws from the LoN. Shows Italy and Germany that they can do that as well
      • Japans government supports the expansion but doesn't want to anger greater powers so tries to control/condemn the officers who did it. Govt collapses over inability to, and now foreign policy completely invested in expansion.
      • USA is in period of semi-isolation and public doesnt want any war. Enforced open door policy because doesnt want it to interrupt their trade deals. Stinson Doctrine = will not recognise any new borders gained through conflict.
    • 2nd Sino-Japanese war: Japan never stops the aggression and continues to take over Northern China. Chiang-Kai Shek focus on communists annoys people, he is forced to co-operate with communists and Second United front forms to combat Japanese. Japanese take over Shiang hai an nanjing
      • Japan: Running out of resources because wasn't expecting to be at war for so long, has conquered lots of china but still lots left.
      • China: Government move to Wuhan because Nanjing captured. In-fighting means eventually 2nd United Front  collapses.
      • LON is distracted by Spanish civil war and Abyssinian crisis. Most countries dont condone actions but dont rlly care because china is communist and corrupt. Nine-Power Pact is formed to encourage Japan to stop but does nothing.
      • USSR: Is happy with the war because distracts attention from Japan-Manchuko border. Russia would pick fights at borders with Japanese and mongolia or manchuko and then take that bit of land as appeasement to stop. Also now that China has communist government  it can trade with her = extra money.
      • USA: Increases tensions and sends funds + resources to China but doesn't get involved, still in isolation. Don't want Japan to move against their colony (phillipines) so they are careful. Banned all ship imports to both but doesnt effect Japan becuase they make their own.
    • Japan emerges from 2nd Sino-Japanese war more aggressively expansionist First is French Indochina becuase they want to cut of supplies to Chinese government, which largely are coming from French Indochina, Laos and Cambodia. French just defeated in WW2, threaten  government with invasion and they allow Japan to land troops there (1941).
      • US: Freezes Japanese assets, OIL EMBARGO, and bans sale of raw materials.
      • US was Japan's main oil supplier, so now they only have 18 months of fuel left. This means either they have to give up or find another source in that time. Nearest is Dutch East Indies, but they know that moving there would make the US go to war, since then Phillipines would be in between.
        • Decide to pre-empt this by planning attack on Navy so that it will take a while for the US to recuperate giving them time to prepare for them. = Bombing of Pearl Harbour
          • US declares war 3 days later and war outbreaks in Asia.
        • Tension increases when US releases Hull Note in 1941 saying if Japan does not remove troops from China and East Indies, and end Tripartite Pact they will go to war = pearl harbour attack faster.


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