What happened in 1949? (4)
PRC established (Mao chairman), CCP- '3 yrs recovery, 10 years development', country divided into 6 pol & mil regions-CCP control, Enforced attacks of christianity & buddism
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What happened during 1950? (10)
Invasion of Tibet, Xinjiang & Guengong, Start of Korean war, Agrarian Land Reform- landlords eradicated, Sino-Soviet Treaty-loans from USSR, Marrige Law, Patriotic Health, New curency, Triads eradication, Industry nationalism, Labour camps '76: 25 mi
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What happened during 1951? (2)
.Three Antis- Movement> eradicate corruption among party & gov officials, Mutual Aid Teams set up for 10 households- share tools, animals, labour
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what happened during 1952 (3)
other political parties banned, five antis-movement- eradicate corruption among businessmen, Opium addiction problem solved- drastic penalties for dealers/addicts
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What happened during 1953? (3)
First Five Year Plan for industry- empathsis on heavy industry, Introduction of APCs- shared land-profits still allowed, End of Korean War- death of 1 mill soldiers> china stood up to US
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To what extent was the First Five year plan successful?
Statistically quite successful in terms of figures BUT peasants had to sell grain extremely low> couldn't be kept up. economic growth rate of 9%- compared favorably w/ USSR in 1930's. Many targets met or exceeded- output of coal doubled and steel
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What happened in 1945?
Fall of Gao Gang (CCP leader in Manchuria) & Rao Rashi (Shangdong)-accused of establishing 'independent kingdoms' & only supporting 5 year plan half-heartedly
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What happened during 1955? (3)
Intro of Pinyin-to combat literacy of only 20% in China, National primary education system set up- only half China's kids attended, All private enterprise abolished
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What happened during 1956?
Collectivisation- 97% of peasants in collectives- controlled by CCP-quotas to feed urban areas
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What happened during 1957? (3)
100 Flower Campaign- encouraged intellectuals to criticise the party, followed by Anti-Rightist purges of intellectuals, Agriculture production- only 38% growth, 1rst 5 yr plan finished
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What happened during 1958 (3)
Great Leap Forward launched (2nd 5 yr plan)- influence of Lysenko, Mao stepped down as Head of State of PRC (remained CCP chairman), Beijing- radical redevelopment & construction of Tiananmen Square
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What happened during 1959 (3)
Purge of Peng Dehuai from the Party leadership (he criticised GLF), Floods & droughts led to food shortages, China famine starts- 'arc of misery'- 30 million deaths by 1962
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What happened during 1960 (2)
Soviet withdraal of financial assistance & advisers, Literacy rates increased to 50%
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What happened during 1962 (4)
Mao withdrew from political life- left Lui Shaoqi in charge, 3rd 5 yr plan for industry- moved towards capitalist system, Start of power between Mao & Liu Shaoqi/Deng Xiaoping, Launch of Little Red Book by Lin Biao (quotes by Mao)
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What happened during 1963?
socialist education campaign to spread Mao's idea
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What happened during 1964?
China tested its first atomic bomb
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What happened during 1966? (2)
Cultural revolution launched by Mao> young pep, red gaurds, denouncing 4 olds, Mao condemned revisionists at a party's central committee meeting- Lui Shaoqi demoted to nom 8 in party hierarchy- promoted Lin Biao to nom 2
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What happened during 1967? (2)
Party leadership overthrow in city by Red Guards (Jan), PLA suppressed Red Guards (Feb)
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What happened during 1969? (2)
Cultural revolution officially declared over by Party Congress (only violent phase), 'Up to the mountains & down to the villages' campaign- 12 mill sent to remote areas
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What happened during 1971? (2)
Mao suspicious of Lin Biao's power- Lin Biao took part in plot to assassinate Mao, Lin Biao died- 'air crash' after unsuccessful attempt at a coup (daughter leaked plot)
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What happened during 1972? (2)
cultural rev. played down by Mao as Nixon visits China to restore normal relations- China recognised by USA, Zhou Enlai & Deng Xiaoping- more prominent- Jiang Qing (Mao's wife) & her 'Gang of Four' attacked Zhou & Deng as 'pragmatist clique'
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What happened during 1973? (2)
Anti-Confucius campaign launched by Gang of Four, Cultural rev. arrests continued unti Mao's death
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What happened during 1976?
Mao's death
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Positive aspects of Mao's rule (8)
China became united country, china became a great world power & regained independence, Increased literacy rates- 70& increase by 1976, Steel production tripled by 1950, Woman- equal rights, Infrastructures improved, Food product. kept at pace of pop
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Negative aspects of Mao's rule ()
Economic growth slowed down in 70's, peasants continued to suffer from primitive techniques, Poss. 70 mil deaths 1949-76 (Chang calls Mao 'driven monster), Attacks on intellectuals, 1982 census less than 1% working pop had uni degree, Rule of law & h
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Political historical context (5)
Political instability since republican birth 1911, rule of Yuan Shikai, warlords, GMD, Japanese invasion & problems w/ Civil war-Revolutionary atmosphere encouraged CCP development
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Social historical context (2)
Chinese Society- based on Confucius ideals> Mao challenged this order- many peasants were attracted to the changes
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Economical historical context (4)
Mismanagement of eco. from Nationalist govt.- printed more bank notes which devalued currency- 1949 economic collapse under nationalists while Mao took over towns, prevented crime, controlled food dist. ext
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Elimination of weak opposition (6)
Reputation for brutality & ill discipline among local pop. didn't give what they promised (i.e nationalism, democracy, livelihood improvements), GMD failed to defend nationalist interests, had low moral, govt.corrupt & inefficient, peasants &
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Strength of Mao (in comparison to opposition) (8)
Intelligent, well read; peasant family, Long March- showed his courage & commitment, built party based on peasants, eliminated foreign dogmatism- inspired loyalty, gave party unity, combined democracy w/ dictatorship, guerrilla tactics successful
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Appeal of Mao's ideology (3)
Marxist> historical dev. occurs through social classes conflict- only way to gain power was through violence> peasants supported as to overthrow landlords & then remained communist in case landlords fought back if nationalist took control again
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Political developments (9)
one party state- politburo carried out govt. business, obliteration of bourgeois, 3 antis campaign (51), 5 antis campaign (52), early 50's- labour camps, military securing of boarders, sino-soviet agreement-1950, 100 Flower campaign,
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an inner core of 20 members from the council)
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obliteration of bourgeoisie
repression & terror key weapons- propaganda campaigns, the police, the courts, imprisonment & execution, forced labour camps
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What were the positive & negative effects of the Korean war on china?
Neg- 1 mill dead soldiers in PLA- drain on economy, Pos- united China behind Mao; china had matched the armies of the West
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Historians opinions: Was the hundred flower campaign a trap or just a serious judgement of error
Jung chang- political trap- 'he could use what they said as an excuse to victimise'. Spence- not plot, 'muddled & inconclusive movement'. Short- not plot, Mao underestimated 'the volume and bitterness of the criticisms'
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Economic development (2)
regulation of economy: ne currency, higher taxation & govt. expenditure cut, Sino soviet agreement: secured soviet loans
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Economic developments- agriculture (4)
Land reform- 1949-53 (stages towards collectivisation), 51:MATs, 53: APCs, Collectivisation 56. Impact on agri production disappointing- only grew 3,8%
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mutual aid teams- first cautious steps towards collectivisation. MATs grouped 10 peasant households to share tools, labour & animals
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Historians opinions: collectivisations effect on living standards
Spence: peasants were better fed in 1956-7 than in the early 50's. Chang & Halliday:peasants suffered severe hardships because of collectivisation
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2nd stage of agricultural cooperation. Agricultural producers cooperatives grouped together 30 to 50 households
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Economic developments- industry (2)
1rst 5 year plan- 53-57, great leap forward- 58
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aim & outcome of 1rst 5 year plan (4)
self sufficiency. make iron, steel energy etc. According to mos figs, targets were achieved by 1956& by end exceeded. However- problems rose: many workers illiterate- couldn't read instructions, quantity over quality,
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aim and method of the great leap forward (4)
self reliance, become fully developed communist country- high targets set. Methods:collectivised peasants produce food for work force & that could be sold abroad: raise money for Chinese expansion. workers make own industry- steel in backyards> 58:
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Consequences of great leap forward- agriculturally
58- good weather:good crops, then grain amount fell-only 200m tonnes, govt. said 375m tonnes.30 mill died of famine. farm machinery broke. no tools to fix- all melted. workers too busy w/ backyard furnaces to work fields> agri. pro fell 143.5m ton 60
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consequence of great leap forward- industrially
steel production fell short-fail of backyard, mostly useless. 58:USSR withdrew financial support. Mao stepped down- abandoned GLF. Private ownership of land reinstated & communes cut down
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How was the cult of Mao created
'Little Red Book', PLA became stronghold of Maoist teachings. CCP's propaganda dept deliberately created cult of Mao, used political education in schools, colleges, workplace & MILITARY> L.RB: a source of truth
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what was the cultural revolution 1966
violent & destructive campaign to set party mem against party mem & generation against generation>effort to destroy old society & replace w/ new, led by generation born & raised under communist system
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Why did Mao launch the cultural revolution? (6)
Re-impose authority after withdrawal, permanently remove opposition, divert fromGLF failure, restore peasant communism nature, rid CCP of capitalist elements (Lin Shaoqi), fear of USSR events-Khrushchev dismissed after eco prob-could happen 2 Mao-GLF
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What did the cultural revolution attack and how did it become a national movement in China?
FOUR OLDS: old culture, old ideas, old customs, old habits. Resonated w/ young people- poster campaigns, huge rallies, establishment of Red Guards & Mao swimming Yangzi river (show vitality)> Mao demoted Liu Shaoqi
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Who were the red guards?
Young people who took on the task to start CR & destroy 4 olds- worshipped Mao- taken by the cult of Mao.
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What did the red guards do and what happened because of their actions? ()
Attack four olds, single out & presecute intellectuals, elederly chinese w/ old objects were invaded, objects destroyed, museums and cultural works destroyed. No one was safe-writers, economists, teachers, girls became equal, same uniform, schools &
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How were the red guards 'reined in'?
'Up the mountains and down the villages' campaign: 1969- CCP ordered young people to work on communes & huge state construction projects
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Impact of the cultural revolution (1966-69)
1/2 mill died from torture, beatings & forced suicide- phycological damage, China youth living in poverty, changed attitude to party, entire generation lost schooling- crime &loose morals increased in youth, china modernisation delayed,
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What was tradition concerning woman pre Mao? (4)
owed obedience to fathers, then husbands & as widows to their eldest don, arranged marriages common, foot binding, few received an education
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The new marriage law 1950
outlawed arranged marriages & payments of dowries to husband/ his fam. Concubinage banned, unmarried, divorced or widowed woman same rights to own property. Divorced leaglised
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Impact of Collectivisation of woman?
Pos:everyone ate in halls- woman didnt have to find & prep food. Neg- as seen as equal, had to do mens labour- estranged from the children and husbands> woman became disorientated & the famine deepened their helplessness.
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Impact of cultural revolution on family life
traditional fam. seen as a 4olds & were told Mao & the CCp were their new parents. Were told/encouraged to inform on their parents- hard for any family life to survive. Red guards who 'went up the mountains' couldn't return to parents & pick up piece
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How did attitudes to woman change after the cultural revolution
didn't especially- still deep ingrained belief in female inferiority- prejudice against female babies, drain on resources, commies didnt commit to gender equlioty as promised- during Mao's time woman made up only 13% of the communist party membership
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population trends
during mao's time, nom of people nearly doubled- 'more people, more power'
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What were Mao's health provisions?
improve health by teaching about connection between dirt & disease, many doctors trained in early yrs- 1950 most peps saw doctors. HOWEVER politics interviend disruption frm GLF & CR meant nom of doctors never reached original target. life expectancy
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How did chinese communism consider religion?
superstitions that throughout history had been deliberately cultivated by the classes of power to suppress the exploited people
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What did Mao say about religion and why did he say it?
that it was poison & compared to Christian missionaries in China to the Nazis in Europe. 1.didnt tolerate religion 2. feared PRC provinces would mix religions w/ nationalism & would create dangerous separaist movemnts
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State attacks on religion
christian churches forcibly closed, foreign priest/nuns expelled, wall posters &loud speakers condemned religion, confucianism, buddhism & christianity deemed worthless superstition, temples ,churches & shries closed/ turned 2 offices, ancestry worsh
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which churches were allowed to remain open why?
patriotic churches, that 'did not endanger the security of the state> done to give appearance of tolerance
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Religious persecution during the cultural revolution
attack intensified. no public worship/ ceremony allowed- clery imprisoned. confuciansim denouced as representing all that was worst in chinese history- phrase 'confucius & co.' became insult
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What happened during 1950? (10)


Invasion of Tibet, Xinjiang & Guengong, Start of Korean war, Agrarian Land Reform- landlords eradicated, Sino-Soviet Treaty-loans from USSR, Marrige Law, Patriotic Health, New curency, Triads eradication, Industry nationalism, Labour camps '76: 25 mi

Card 3


What happened during 1951? (2)


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Card 4


what happened during 1952 (3)


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Card 5


What happened during 1953? (3)


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