Origins of the 48/49 War

The same information can be used for causes of the arab revolution in 47. 

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  • Created on: 02-05-11 18:40
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The Origins of the 48/49 Arab Israeli war and the effects
(Paper 1, 2 or 3)
Causes
Long Term
Ideology:
· Zionism
· Political group of Jewish people
· "homeland for Jewish people"
· Many Jews were anti-Zionist however despite the pogroms
· They believed that their "Jewishness" did not make them less
or Russian, German or Amiercan. Judaism was a religion
· Goals: Jews have their home in Palestine and independence
· 1897 - First Zionist Conference
· Settlement of the Jews
· Uniting the Jews across the Globe
· Jewish Nationalism
· Talking with governments
· Herzl made a proposal but no one was giving in until
Chamberlain died in 1904 so Palestine only alternative
o First Aliyah (1882 - 1903)
35000 Jews immigrated to Palestine then to Ottoman
Empire. Many came from Russian Empire and they created
agricultural communities
Second Aliyah (1904 - 1914)
40 000 Jews immigrated from Russia to Palestine following
the Pogroms and anti-semitism
Socialist ideology led to creation of Kibbutz
Kibbutz
Russian Socialism - communal living
o Pan Arabism and the help of the British
McMohan promised that if the Arabs fought against the
Turks they would be prepared to recognize and support
independence of Arabs
Hussein (Sherif of Mecca)-McMohan (B.H.C) Letters
1915
1915-1916 McMohan tried to get support from
Arabs against the Ottoman Empire
Brits promised the Arabs an independent Arab
kingdom under his rule in return the Arabs
would stage a revolt against the Ottoman
Empire.
T.E Lawrence - Diplomacy of him promising
independence the British had encouraged an Arab
uprising in 1916 against the Turks

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Arab Revolt 1916 - 1918 (Ottoman Empire ended
with the British help)
An army was created to defeat the Turks. They felt
they deserved after defeating the Turks the right to
complete self government
Sykes- Picot Agreement 1916
Secret Agreement between GB and France in
May 1916 for the dismemberment of the
Ottoman Empire.
Effect: Division of Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Palestine
among GB and France.…read more

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The Brits decided to encourage the Arabs to rebel against
the Turkish rulers to seek independence
Paris Peace Conference
Arabs believed that they would be given the land
that was promised to them.
Lawrence appealed to US President Wilson to
step in as a neutral guarantor of ME.…read more

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Conducted guerilla warfare, collected weapons, attacked
British forces, organized illegal entry of refugees
· Widespread sympathy for Jews who survived Nazi camps
· Brits stopped the Jewish refugees from landing ex. Exodus
· Creation of "Detention Camps" 1946 - 48 for the refugees on the
boats.…read more

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Transjordan operated autonomous unit under BRitish
authority and Jews could not live in it
· Hence Jews began to immigrate to the 20% of the Mandate
west of Jordan.…read more

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King Faisal declared head of State
· Palestine became under British control as a mandate granted by
LN, which required establishing Jewish national homeland. Until
then Palestinian boundaries had not been defined.
· LN Mandates
· San Remo Conference - incorporated the Balfour
Declaration of 1917 + Article 22 were basis for the Mandate of
Palestine.
· GB and France agreed to recognize independence of Syria
and Mesopotamia.…read more

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Brits began operating w/ Jewish Forces (Haganah) to restore
order
· Jewish settlers began their own revenge attacks.
· Haganah: Jewish Defense Organization set up in 1920s to
protect Jewish settlements from Arabs.…read more

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Ben Gurion welcomed it but the Arabs rejected it
· May 15 1948 is when the British Mandate would end, so who
becomes victorious?
o
Violence
o Arabs were divided about the the Partition Plan and the P.…read more

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Historians:
Origins of Arab Israeli Conflict:
Kimmerling and Migdal: The Arab population was simply unaware of the
other groups existence. Jewish land buying did effect local peasants and
resulted in numerous land disputes. The Jews were shaping a future
Jewish-Arab relations. The Jews established an economy based largely on the
exclusion of Arabs from land they farmed and from the Jewish labor market.…read more

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Ovendale:
U.S.A conscious that support for partition would place the U.S. in the
position of favoring the creation of a state against the wishes of the
indigenous inhabitants.
Bickerton and Klausner
Zionist exerted pressure on White house to influence nations to vote
for partition but Truman refused
Partition was successful b/c JEws were perceived as Western whereas
the Arabs were seen as Eastern.…read more

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