The Wartime Conferences

Summary of events and agreements at the three major Wartime Conferences during the Cold War: Tehran (November 1943), Yalta, (February 1945) and Potsdam (July 1945) as well as smaller conferences such as the Fourth Moscow conference, also known as the percentages agreement.

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  • Created on: 02-03-12 21:48
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The Wartime Conferences
There were three major Wartime Conferences; Tehran (November 1943), Yalta (February 1945) and Potsdam (July
1945), as well as many more smaller conferences.
The conferences focused on three key areas:
The state of the war
The status of Germany, Poland, Eastern Europe and Japan
The United Nations
Who was involved?
The Grand Alliance
UK (Winston Churchill, succeeded in 1945 by Clement Atlee following Churchill's election defeat)
USA (Franklin Roosevelt, succeeded in 1945 by Harry S Truman following Roosevelt's death)
Russia (Josef Stalin)
Formed in June 1941 when Churchill and Roosevelt sent aid to the Soviets following the Nazi attack on Russia on
The Alliance was referred to as `grand' because in any other circumstances, the USA and UK would have been
opposed to Stalin and Russia.
Despite the formation of the alliance, the way in which the Soviet Union was seen did not change. Of Stalin, Churchill
famously said:
If Hitler invaded Hell, I would make at least favourable reference to the Devil in the House of Commons.
Stalin wanted more action, despite the formation of the alliance; nothing less than the opening of a second front in
Europe to take some of the pressure off the USS in the east would have been acceptable to Stalin. While the west
agreed to this "in principle", they said that they would not open this second front until the time was right. Stalin was
suspicious of this and thought that the western powers were deliberately delaying this offensive in the hope of
seeing the Soviet Union permanently weakened by the continuing German onslaught.
In Tehran (1943), relations improved a little. A definite date for the Normandy invasion was set, and in return, Stalin
promised to declare war on Japan once Germany was defeated.
The Tehran Conference, November 1943
Those present
Winston Churchill
Franklin Roosevelt
Josef Stalin
The State of the War
By 1943, the Allies had begun to win the war, following critical turning point victories in 1942

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These victories were at El Alamein, in North Africa, which was the British Army's first victory against
o The Battle of Stalingrad, which was a battle at what is now called Volgagrad, lasting 11 months.
The Germans were being forced to retreat on all sides; from the east by the Soviets, from the south by the
Americans and British, who had driven them out of North Africa and had invaded Mussolini's Italy.…read more

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The United Nations
The Americans were very keen to establish a replacement body for the League of Nations. Both the British
and Soviets gave their general approval to the idea.
Similar to the League of Nations, this new body was designed to settle international, disputes through
collective security.
The USA said that lessons would be learnt from the `mistakes' in the structure and set up of the League of
Nations. The UNO (United Nations Organisation) would be more capable of successfully fulfilling this brief.…read more

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The status of...
... Germany
Allied decision to disarm, demilitarise, de-Nazify and divide Germany. The agreement was to divide post-war
Germany into for occupation zones between the USA, USSR, the UK and France. The division was to be
temporary and Germany was to be run as one country.
An Allied Control Commission was set up to govern Germany.
Stalin demanded a large percentage of reparations from Germany after the devastation that the war in the
East had wreaked on the Soviets.…read more

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Stalin insisted that all 16 soviet republics have separate seats in the UN General Assembly. The US and UK
eventually agreed to seats for Russia, the Ukraine and Belarus
Conference Conclusions
Three main positive outcomes:
UN agreement
Soviet agreement to join the war in the Pacific against Japan
The `Big Three' signing a `Declaration for Liberated Europe', pledging their support for democratic
governments based on free elections in all European countries, including those in the east.…read more

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Stalin's offer to include more London Poles within a predominately Lublin
led government did not appease Truman.
...Eastern Europe
Truman was not happy about the Percentages Agreement made at the 4th Moscow Conference in 1944 between
Churchill and Stalin. He did not want to see Eastern Europe become a soviet sphere of influence.…read more


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