unit 2 Organic Chemistry only

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  • Created by: nishat
  • Created on: 09-04-13 16:59
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  • organic chemistry
    • organic compound formulae
      • Alkanes:  CnH2n+2
        • Func.: C-C
      • Alkenes: CnH2n
        • Func.: C=C
      • Alycyclic  alkene: CnH2n-2
      • Alcohols-OH,
      • Aldehydes -al
      • Ketones-one
    • Alkanes
      • single C-C bonds only = sigma bonds only
      • substitution reaction= FREE RADICAL Substituiton
        • Initiation , propagation, termination
      • complete combustion= co2 + H20
        • incomplete = co + H20
      • Further processing
        • isomerisation
          • there are structural & stereoisomers
    • alkenes
      • Consist of  C=C double bonds
      • can form stereoisomers & E/z ismoers
      • Addition Reaction
        • electrophilic
        • hydrogenation: Ni cat. & 150 temp. = veg oils to spreadable fats
        • halogenation= added across c=c
        • Bromine test for unsatu. positive= colourless-orange
        • Addition of steam at high temp & pressure  H3pO4 cat= ALCOHOL
        • hydrogen hallides
        • unsymmetrical alkenes= 2 products
      • Bond enthalpies
        • measure strength of covalent bonds
        • Show: C=C stronger than C-C & pi bond weaker than sigma
      • 2 sigma & 1 Pi
        • in reaction pi breaks only.
          • Shape
            • 3 Bond pairs, trig. plan. 120 BA.
            • Cyclic: closed ring strct. of  C
    • Polymers
      • monomers join to form polymers
      • Reaction= addition POLYMERISATION
        • carried out: radical polymerisation & Ziegler-Natta
      • Has gen. formula. monomer has C=C, polymer does NOT only C-C
      • types
        • polystyrene
        • Poly(ethene)
        • Polypropylene
        • Biodegradable beginning to replace
          • broken down by bacterial activity in to co2 & h2o
          • manufactured in on hazerdous way
      • Waste
        • recycled
          • Sorting and Relcamaiton
        • Feedstock recycling
        • burned to release heat energy
    • Bond Fission
      • homolytic
      • heterolytic
    • Fractional Distillation
      • uses bp of diff. compounds to seperates components in a liquid mixture into fractions.
      • first vapourised then passed through fractionating column
    • chain length an branching
      • increasing chain length=more points of contact=greater VDW more energy needed to separate molecules
        • branching had opposite effect.
    • %yield= actual/ theoretical (moles of limiting) X 100
      • Atom Econ.= molecular mass of desired prod. / sum mol. mass of all products.

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