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  • Created on: 15-05-13 10:54
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Mr millns
Module 1
All organic compounds are carbon
carbon is good because it can bond with other carbons to make chains and rings
it can form single, double or triple bonds to another carbon atom
it can also bond with other elements
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon
Saturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons with a single bond only
Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons containing carbon-to-carbon multiple
Aliphatic hydrocarbons hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined in straight or branched
Alicyclic hydrocarbons hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joint in a ring

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Homologous (alkane series) follow the formula CnH2n+
rules of naming hydrocarbons
1. count the longest carbon (parent) chain
2. add the suffix of the carbon chain e.g. alkanes end in ane
3. add any other carbon chain prefixes
if you remove a hydrogen you had yl to the stem as a prefix e.g.…read more

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Name of compound Formula Prefix Suffix
Alkane C-C -ane
Alkene C=C -ene
Halogenoalkane -F fluro-
-Cl chloro-
-Br bromo-
-I iodo-
Alcohol -OH hydroxy- -ol
Aldehyde -CHO -al
Ketone C-CO-C -one
Carboxylic acid -COOH -oic acid
if the suffix starts with a vowel you remove the last letter of the suffix e.g. methaneal would
become methanal
is added to indicated two identical groups
is added to indicated three identical groups
is added to indicated four identical groups
e.g.…read more

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Molecular formula=relative molecular mass
relative empirical mass
Cyclic compounds
3 types
E/Z isomerism
E isomer
(trans) groups on opposite sides
Z isomer
(cis) groups on the same side
(togezer)…read more

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Fractional distilation
· each fraction is a mixture of hydrocarbons with similar boiling points
· pure liquids have a fixed boiling point, a pure hydrocarbon can be obtained by further
short-chained hydrocarbons low boiling points condense at the top
longer-chained hydrocarbons high boiling points condense at the bottom
gases do not condense and pass through outlet at the top
residue is called bitumen
as the chain length increases the boiling point increases as well, there are more van der
Waals' forces because there are…read more

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Addition reaction of hydrogen bromide
H - Br
pi-bond is attracted to the slightly positive hydrogen…read more

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Polymer is a long molecular chain built up from monomer units
Monomers are a small molecule that combines with many other monomers to form a
Radical polymerization
needs 200 degrees
high pressures
this reaction can lead to branching of the polymer chain and production of
polymer mixtures
use of specialist catalyst e.g.…read more

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Atom Economy
Atom economy considers all the by-products as well as the desired product, the
efficiency is described in terms of all the atoms involved
A reactions with high atom economy uses minimal waste
Volatility is the ease that a liquid turns into a gas, this increases as the boiling point
Solubility decreases as the chain length increases
Alcohols dissolve in water because hydrogen bonds form between the polar -O-H groups
Primary Alcohols
the -OH group os attached to a carbon atom with no…read more

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compounds that have a halogen atom which has replaced one of the hydrogen
used in refrigerants, aerosol, propellants, degreasing agents and dry-cleaning
Naming them
based on the homologous series
prefix is added to the name of the longest chain
position of halogen on the chain is indicated
if there is more than one halogen they are named alphabetically
halogens are more electronegative than carbon
the bonded pair goes towards the halogen atom more than the carbon atom
the electronegativity of halogens…read more


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