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Mr millns
chemistry
Module 1

All organic compounds are carbon
carbon is good because it can bond with other carbons to make chains and rings
it can form single, double or triple bonds to another carbon atom
it can also bond with other elements


Hydrocarbons are organic compounds containing only…

Page 2

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Homologous (alkane series) follow the formula CnH2n+

rules of naming hydrocarbons
1. count the longest carbon (parent) chain
2. add the suffix of the carbon chain e.g. alkanes end in ane
3. add any other carbon chain prefixes

if you remove a hydrogen you had yl to the stem as…

Page 3

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Name of compound Formula Prefix Suffix

Alkane C-C -ane

Alkene C=C -ene

Halogenoalkane -F fluro-
-Cl chloro-
-Br bromo-
-I iodo-

Alcohol -OH hydroxy- -ol

Aldehyde -CHO -al

Ketone C-CO-C -one

Carboxylic acid -COOH -oic acid
if the suffix starts with a vowel you remove the last letter of the…

Page 4

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Molecular formula=relative molecular mass
relative empirical mass

Cyclic compounds
cyclopentane




Isomerism


3 types
structural
stero-isomerism
E/Z isomerism


E isomer
(trans) groups on opposite sides




Z isomer
(cis) groups on the same side
(togezer)

Page 5

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Fractional distilation
· each fraction is a mixture of hydrocarbons with similar boiling points
· pure liquids have a fixed boiling point, a pure hydrocarbon can be obtained by further
distillation



short-chained hydrocarbons low boiling points condense at the top


longer-chained hydrocarbons high boiling points condense at the bottom


gases…

Page 6

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nucleophile is an atom that is attracted to an electron-deficient centre, it donates a pair
of electrons to form a new covalent bond


electrophile is attached to an electron-rich centre or atom where it accepts electrons


a radical is extremely reactive because it has an unpaired electron


addition reaction involves…

Page 7

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Polymer is a long molecular chain built up from monomer units
Monomers are a small molecule that combines with many other monomers to form a
polymer


Radical polymerization
needs 200 degrees
high pressures
this reaction can lead to branching of the polymer chain and production of
polymer mixtures
Ziegler-Natta
use…

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Atom Economy




Atom economy considers all the by-products as well as the desired product, the
efficiency is described in terms of all the atoms involved
A reactions with high atom economy uses minimal waste


Volatility is the ease that a liquid turns into a gas, this increases as the boiling…

Page 9

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Halogenoalkanes
compounds that have a halogen atom which has replaced one of the hydrogen
atoms
used in refrigerants, aerosol, propellants, degreasing agents and dry-cleaning
solvents


Naming them
based on the homologous series
prefix is added to the name of the longest chain
position of halogen on the chain is indicated…

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