Chemistry

Hydrocarbons
Organic compounds that contai carbon and hydrogen only
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Saturated Hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with single bonds only
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Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon containg carbon to carbon multiple bonds
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Aliphatic Hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains
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Alicyclic Hydrocarbon
Hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure
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Functional Group
Part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions
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Homologous Series
A series of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2
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Alkanes
The homologous series with the general formula CnH2n+2
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Nomenclature
System of naming componds
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Alkyl Group
An alkane with a hydrogen atom removed (often shown as R)
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General Formula
Simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series
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Displayed Formula
Shows the relative positioning of all the atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them
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Structural Formula
Shows the minimal detail for the arrangement of atoms in a molecule
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Skeletal Formula
A simplified organic formula,with hydrogen atoms removed from alkyl chains
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Structural Isomers
Molecules with the same molecular formula but with different structural arrangements of atoms
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Stereoisomers
Compounds with the same structural formula,but with a different arrangement of the atoms in space
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E/Z Isomerism
Type of stereoisomerism in which different groups attached to eacch carbon of a c=c double bond may be arranged differently in space because of the restricted rotation of the c=c double bond
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Cis-trans Isomerism
Type of E/Z isomerism in which there is a non hydrogen group and hydrogen on each C of a c=c double bond
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Homolytic Fission
The breaking of a covalent bond,with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom,forming two radicals
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Radical
A species with an unpaired electron
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Heterolytic Fission
The breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to one of the atoms forming a positive and negative ion
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Nucleophile
An atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron deficient centre or atom,where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Electrophile
An atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron rich centre or atom,where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Addition Reaction
Reaction in which a reactant is added to anunsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule
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Substitution Reaction
Reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced with a different atom or group of atoms
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Elimination Reaction
Removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule
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Fractional Distilation
The separation of the components in a liquid mixture into fractions which differ in boiling point by means of distillation,typically using a fractionating column
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Cracking
The breaking down of long chained saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixture of shorter chained alkanes and alkenes
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Catalyst
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up in the process
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Pi-bond
Reactive part of a double bond formed above and below the plane of the bonded atoms by sideways overlap of p-oritals
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A hydrocarbon with single bonds only

Back

Saturated Hydrocarbon

Card 3

Front

A hydrocarbon containg carbon to carbon multiple bonds

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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