chemistry keywords

Hydrocarbon
A compound of hydrogen and Carbon only
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Saturated
Single carbon to carbon bonds
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Unsaturated
double carbon to carbon bond
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Aliphatic
A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched carbons
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Functional Group
Gives an organic compound its characteristics
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Alkanes
Organic molecule only containing single bonds
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Alkenes
Organic molecule only containing double bonds.
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General Formula
the simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series
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Displayed formula
A formula showing the relative positioning of all the atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them.
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Structural formula
a formula showing the minimal detail for the arrangement of atoms in a molecule.
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Skeletal formula
A simplified organic molecule with hydrogen atoms removed from the alkyl chains leaving just a carbon skeleton and the functional groups
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Structural Isomers
Molecules with the same molecular formula but with different structural arrangement of the atoms
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Stereoisomers
Compound with the same structural formula but with a different arrangement of atoms in space
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E/Z Isomers
Different group attached to each carbon of a C=C double bond may be arranged differently in space because of the restricted rotation of the C=C bond.
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Homolytic Fission
The breaking of a covalent bond with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming twin radicals
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Radical
A species with unpaired electrons
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Heterolytic Fission
The breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to one of the atoms forming a cation and an anion
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Substitution reactions
It s a chemical reaction during which one functional group in a chemical compound is replaced by another functional group.
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Elimination Reactions
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Fractional Distillation
The separation of the components in a liquid mixture into fractions which differ in boiling point
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Cracking
The braking down of long-chained saturated hydrocarbons in to smaller more useful chains
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Isomerisation
The process in which one molecule is transformed into another which has exactly the same atoms but a different arrangement.
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Radical Substitution
A substitution reaction involving free radicals as a reactive intermediate
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Mechanism
A sequence of steps showing the paths taken by electrons in a reaction
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Initiation
The first step in a radical substitution in which the free radicals are generated by ultraviolet radiation
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Propagnation
The two repeated steps in radical substitution that build up the products in a chain reaction
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Termination
The step at the end of a radical substitution when two radicals combine to form a molecule.
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Pi-Bond
The reactive part of the double bond formed above and behind the plane of the bonded atoms by sideways overlap of P-orbitals
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Electrophilic Addition
An electrophile is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atoms where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Carbocation
an organic ion to which a carbon atom has a positive charge
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curly arrow
the symbol used in reaction mechanisms to show the movement of an electron pair in the breaking or formation of covalent of a covalent bond
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polymer
a long molecular chain built up from monomer units
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monomer
a small molecule that combines with many other monomer to form a polymer
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addition polymerisation
the process in which unsaturated alkene molecules add on to a growing polymer chain one at a time to form a long saturated molecular chain
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Repeat Unit
A specific arrangement of atoms that occurs in the structure over and over again
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Biodegradeable
A substance that is broken down naturally in the environment by living organisms
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Single carbon to carbon bonds

Back

Saturated

Card 3

Front

double carbon to carbon bond

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched carbons

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Gives an organic compound its characteristics

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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