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Activation Energy
Minimum energy particle needs in order to react; enthalpy difference between reactants and transition state
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Organic compound with general formula 'RCHO' there is a C=O double bond
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Alkaline earth metals
Group 2 of periodic table
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General formula CnH2n
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pure elements that can exist in different physical forms when atoms are arranged differently. eg; Diamond, Graphite and Buckministerfullerene are all allotopes of carbon.
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Anaerobic respiration
Process where energy is released and new compounds formed in living organisms with the absense of oxygen.
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Atom Economy
Efficiency of a chemical reaction in producing the desired product: mass of wanted product/total mass of reactants x 100
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Atomic orbital
Region of space around the nucleus of an atom where there is high probability of finding an electron
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Avogadro's number
Total number of particles in one mole of a subsance; 602200000000000000000000
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An instrument for measuring heat changes that accompany chemical reactions.
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Substance which alters a chemical reaction but is not used up
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Catalytic cracking
The breaking of long chain alkanes into shorter chain hydrocarbons with aid of a catalyst
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Organic ion where one of the carbon atoms has a positive charge.
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Process or series of Processes by which the same amount of CO2 is absorbed from the air as what is given out.
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Chemical feedstock
Starting materials in industrial processes
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Co-ordinate bonding
Covalent bonding where both electrons came from one of the atoms in the bond (Dative)
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Covalent bonding
Chemical bond where electrons are shared between two atoms.
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Electrons spread across several atoms to help bond them together; found in metallic bonding and also graphite
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Dipole-dipole forces
Intermolecular force which occurs from the attractioj between molecules with permanent dipoles
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Displacement reaction
Chemical reaction where an atom or group of atoms replaces another in a compound.
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Displayed formula
Drawn out so every bond is shown.
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Redox reaction where oxidation number of some atoms increase and other atoms decrease
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Dymanic equilibrium
Situation where composition of a reation mixture does not change because both forward and backwards reactions happen at the same rate
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Electron density
Probability of an electron being found in a particular volume of space
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Electron pair repulsion theory
Explains the shape of molecules that assumes that all electrons around central atom repel each other and get as far away from each other as possible
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Power of an atom to attract electrons in the covalent bond.
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Electro- deficient atom, ion or molecule which takes part in organic reactions by attacking areas of high electron density in another reactant
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Electrophilic addition
Reaction where carbon-carbon double bond is saturated and initial reaction is an attack from the electrophile.
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Electrostatic forces
Forces of attraction and repulsion between electrically charged particles
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Reaction where a an atom or group of atoms is removed from reactant
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Emperical formula
Simpliest whole number ratio between atoms in a compund
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Reaction where heat is taken in as reactants change into products, temperature drops, enthalpy increases
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Enthalpy change
Measure of heat given out or taken in when chemical or physical change occurs at constant pressure
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Enthalpy diagrams
Diagrams where enthalpies of reactants and products are plotted to show relative levels
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Equilibrium mixture
Mixture of reactants and products performing a reversible reaction in contained conditions. Forward and backwards reactions proceed at equal rates
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Heat is given out as reactants change into products, enthalpy is decreased.
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Fingerprint region
area in infra-red spectrum belo 1500cm-1. Caused by complex vibration of the whole molecule and is characteristic of a particular molecule
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Mixture of hydrocarbons collected over a particular range of boiling points in fractional distillation
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Free radical
Chemical species with unpaired electron, usually highly reactive eg. hydroxyl
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Functional group
atom or group of atoms in organic molecules which are responsible for characteristics of the molecule
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Vertical column on the periodic table, all elements in the group have fairly similar characteristics as they all have same outer electron arrangement.
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Half equation
Calculation for redox reaction which shows only one of the species and it's transferral of electrons
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Heterogeneous catalyst
Catalyst which is in a different state to the reactants in the reaction
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Homolytic fission
the breaking of a covalent bond in such a way that one electron goes to each atom.
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Hydrogen Bonding
A type of intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to an electronegative atom interacts with another electronegative atom. (Only occurs when the H is bonded to N, O or F)
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Ideal Gas Equation
pV=nRT where P = Pa, V= metres^3, R= Gas Constant, T = K, n= moles
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Ionic Bonding
A chemical bond in which an electron or electrons are transferred from one atom to another, resulting in the formation of oppositely charged ions with electrostatic forces of attraction between them.
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Ionisation Energy
the energy required to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of isolated gaseous atoms or ions.
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Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formula.
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Lone pair
A pair of electrons in the outermost shell of an atoms electron structure which is not involved in bonding.
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Le Chatelier’s Principle
a system in equilibrium will respond to oppose any change imposed upon it.
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Mass Number
The total number of Protons and Neutrons in the nucleus of one atom of an element.
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Maxwell-Boltzmann Distributions
the distribution of energies and therefore speeds of molecules in a gas/ liquid.
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Metallic Bonding
describes a chemical bond in which outer electrons are spread over a lattice of metal ions in a delocalised system.
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Molecular ion
In mass spectrometry this is a molecule of the sample which has been ionised and has not been broken up during its flight through the instrument. (The furthest peak to the right on the graph: Parent Ion).
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protons and neutrons – the subatomic particles found in the nuclei of atoms.
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An ion or group of atoms with a negative charge, or a partially negatively charged area, which takes part in a organic reaction by attacking an electron deficient area in another reactant.
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the tiny positively charged centre of an atom composed of protons and neutrons.
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A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms loses electrons to another atom.
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Oxidation State
the number of electrons lost of gained by an atom in a compound compared to the un-combined atom. It forms the basis of a way of keeping track of Redox (electron transfer) Reactions.
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Percentage Yield
(Amount of Product Produced)/(Theoretical Amount Produced)× 100
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Describes a molecule in which the charge is not symmetrically distributed, so that one area is slightly positively charged and another slightly negatively charged. This results from Electronegativity
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Positive Inductive Effect
The tendency of some atoms or groups of atoms to release electrons via covalent bond.
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Redox reaction
Short for Reduction-Oxidation reaction, it describes reactions in which electrons are transferred from one species to another
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A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms gains electrons.
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Relative Atomic Mass
Ar= (average mass of an Atom)/(1⁄12 th mass of 1 atom of (12C )
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Relative Molecular Mass
Mr= (average mass of an entity/ molecule)/(1⁄12 th mass of 1 atom of (12)C )
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Specific Heat Capacity, c
the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1K.
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Standard Molar Enthalpy change of combustion ∆H_c^θ
The amount of heat energy given out when one mole of a substance is completely burnt in oxygen with all reactions in standard states (298K and 100kPa).
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Standard Molar Enthalpy change of formation ∆H_f^θ
The heat change when one mole of a substance is formed from its elements with all reactants and products in their standard states (298K and 100kPa).
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van der Waals force
a type of intermolecular force of attraction that is caused by instantaneous dipoles and acts between all atoms and molecules. (Quantum-induced instantaneous polarization by correlated movements of the electrons in interacting molecules).
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Simple whole number ratios inchich chemicals react
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Structural formula
Writing out an organic compound but not showing the nature of all the bonds
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where a molecules charge is not symmetrically distributed
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Positive inductive effect
where atoms or groups of atoms release electrons via covalent bond
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ion or group of atoms with negative charge take part in organic reactions by attacking electron deficient areas of another reactant
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One or more compouds with the same molecular formula but different structural formula, arranged differently
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Metallic bonding
Chemical bond where outer electrons spread across a giant metal lattice (delocalised)
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Organic compound with formula R2CO there is a C=O double bond
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Spectator ions
Ions which are unchanged during the chemical reaction.
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Card 2


Organic compound with general formula 'RCHO' there is a C=O double bond



Card 3


Group 2 of periodic table


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Card 4


General formula CnH2n


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Card 5


pure elements that can exist in different physical forms when atoms are arranged differently. eg; Diamond, Graphite and Buckministerfullerene are all allotopes of carbon.


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