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AS Chemistry (OCR) Glossary

Acid- A species that is a proton donor
Activation Energy- The minimum energy required to start a reaction by the breaking of
bonds
Addition Polymer- A very long molecular chain, formed by repeated addition reactions of
many unsaturated alkene molecules (monomers)
Addition Polymerisation- The process in…

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Cation- A positively charged ion
Cis-Trans Isomerism- A special type of E/Z isomerism in which there is a non-hydrogen
group and a hydrogen on each C of a C=C double bond. This cis/Z isomer has the H atoms
on the same side. The trans/Z isomer has the H atoms on…

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Endothermic Reaction- A reaction in which the enthalpy of the products is greater than
the enthalpy of the reactants resulting in heat being taken in from the surroundings
Enthalpy- The heat content that is stored in a chemical system
Enthalpy Change of Combustion- The enthalpy change that takes place when…

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Heterolytic Fission- The breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons
going to one of the atoms, forming a cation and an anion
Homogeneous Catalysis- A reaction in which the catalyst and reactants are in the same
physical state, which is most frequently the aqueous or gaseous…

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Molecular Ion- The positive ion formed in mass spectrometry when a molecule loses an
electron
Molecule- A small group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
Monomer- A small molecule that combines with many other monomers to form a polymer
Nomenclature- A system of naming compounds
Nucleophile- An atom that…

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Reflux- The continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure that the
reaction takes place without the contents of the flask boiling dry
Relative Atomic Mass- The weighted mean of an atom of an element compared with one
twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon 12…

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Termination- The step at the end of a radical substitution when two radicals combine to
form a molecule
Thermal Decomposition- The breaking up of a chemical substance with heat into at least
two chemical substances
Troposphere- The lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, extending from the earth's
surface up to…

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