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  • Created by: Kelseyb
  • Created on: 17-05-16 21:28
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  • NRMS
    • Nature of sects
      • Breakaway group or protest movement from existing religion or denomination. Disagreement often because existing movement is being too liberal.
      • Deeply commited to beliefs and can be excluded for not conforming to strict behavioural expectations.
      • 'monopoly of the truth'. Only true path to enlightenment is through that membership.
      • Exclusive membership. Can't be baptised into the movements. Members must join voluntarily as adults and must actively commit.
      • Reject wider society- may oppose the culture, norms and values of mainstream society
      • Single charismatic leader- do not have an organised hierarchy of officials.
      • Attract people from lower classes or people who are in some way opposed to or alienated from mainstream society.
      • Short-lived. May grow, become more organised and change into denomination or they may die out over time or when leader dies.
    • Nature of cults
      • Completely new interpretation of existing beliefs or based on beliefs not found in any existing religion.
      • Pragmatic- practical reasons e.g. to improve happiness.
      • Usually mystical- focus on the individual having a personal experience of divine or supernatural.
      • Communal or residential.
      • Beliefs and practices often more extreme and further from mainstream.
      • Expected to give up families and jobs in order to commit full time to the lifestyle of the cult. Some even ban members from contact with anyone outside the cult.
      • Extremely devoted to the leader themselves as they are often smaller and more intense so members often have personal relationship with leader.
    • Untitled
    • Stark and Bainbridge
      • Audience cult- least organised, little face to face, contact through mass media or occasional conference, most members don't know eachother. e.g. astrology.
      • Client cults- more organised, offer products and services- medical miracles/forecasts of future/contact with dead. e.g. Scientology.
      • Cult movements- involve followers much more, try to satisfy all religious needs of members, membership of other religious movements not permitted.
    • Wallis
      • World rejecting NRM'S- Highly critical of the outside world, high level of commitment, see movement as the only source of salvation, strict rules on behaviour
      • World accommodating NRM's- Accept outside world as necessary ,highly spiritual, more tolerant of other religions
      • World affirming NRM's- accept the outside world completely, may focus on helping members to succeed in outside world
    • Sociological reasons for rise
      • Sociological change e.g. wars and natural disasters (charismatic leaders promise divine intervention and restore world) Rapid social change in form of industrialisation, urbanisation and modernisation creating uncertainty. May be left without traditional support networks such as family. Complexity of modern life= search for meaning. Secular society with capitalist values and focus on consumerism.Wilson- rise of Methodism in 19th century- response to industrial revolution,
      • Marginality- Weber- focus teachings on under privileged. Promise of better life or new world. Provide social group for acceptance. Love bombing.
      • Relative deprivation theory- Middle class young people. Not objectively or physically deprived but maybe spiritually or emotionally deprived.Surroundings and lifestyle may feel lonely and impersonal. NRM offer hope, a new world-view or a sense of community their old life lacked.
      • Increasing awareness of other faiths and cultures- international travel and communication. Invention of TV and internet. More options to choose from. e.g. beatles and transcendental meditation.
      • Influence of powerful charismatic leader.
    • Theological reasons for rise
      • Dissatisfaction with beliefs of mainstream religions- e.g. answers unsatisfactory. E.g. traditional judeo-christian God incompatible with problem of evil.
      • Clear set of beliefs- definite answers to moral questions.
      • Clear behavioural expectations- much higher level of commitment- all encompassing people looking for something spiritual in their lives.
      • Untitled
      • Evidence of the end times. World events easily interpreted as signs of the end of the world e.g. global warming, terrorism, natural disasters can be seemingly biblical prophecy being fulfilled.
    • Millenarianism
      • Imminence- close to the millennium. Johns apocalyptic visions of the end interpreted to respond to recent historical events. Different views of when but all soon.
      • The tribulation- period of suffering and destruction that will precede Christ's second coming. Descriptions from revelation- literal. Many will die but some will survive and be united with Christ himself. Battle of Armageddon- between Satan and good angels.
      • Millennium- tribulation ends and earth transformed into physical kingdom of God. Paradise, return of garden of eden. Some believe it will last exactly 100 years. Peace, animals getting along (lion and lamb), dead being raised to life so everyone lives together. Will restore world to before Adam and Eve sinned.
      • Rapture- certain people transported to heaven to live with Christ forever there. revelation mentions 144,000. Different views of who (e.g. innocent, millenarian, Christians, God has chosen etc) Evangelicals- rapture is imminent e.g. pilot.


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