Edward VI - Northumberland

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  • Northumberl-and
    • Rise to Power
      • He expelled the conservatives from the council in 1550
      • He was made Lord President of the Council and later General Warden of the North
      • This gave him military command. He gained complete control in 1551 when he had Somerset rearrested and then took the title of Duke of Northumberland
        • Northumberland learnt from Somerset's mistakes and ensured control of the council.
        • He enlarged the membership of the council to 33 and selected members based on loyalty
        • He chose men who had military experience to make sure he had immediate armed support
        • He put the privy council back to the center of government and made less use of proclamations - using Parliamnet to confirm legislation where possible
      • The difficulties facing the new government were the same as the old: REVENUE, FINANCE and FOREIGN POLICY
    • The difficulties facing the new government were the same as the old: REVENUE, FINANCE and FOREIGN POLICY
    • Revenue and Finance
      • By 1550, the government was virtually bankrupt
        • Somerset had spent £1.3m on the war and sold crown lands to the cost of £800,000
      • Ending the war drastically reduced expenditure and coinage was debased again in May 1551
        • But the crown still had to borrow from Continental bankers
      • Sir William Cecil was restored as Secretary of State and started paying off debts through the sale of Chantry land and Church goods
      • By March 1552 coinage was reissued with silver content being restored to the level it was in 1527
        • This put confidence back into the currency and reduced inflation
      • Northumberland paid off the remainder of his mercenary troops and a contingency fund (privy coffer) was established
      • By 1553 the financial situation had been stabilised but another £140,000 of Crown lands had to be sold
      • Streamlining of collection of royal revenue was the most pressing matter
        • To reduce corruption and inefficiency, the number of revenue courts were reduced from 5 to 2
          • Leaving the Exchequer and the Office of Crown Lands
      • Northumberland had shown great political skill
    • Foreign Policy
      • 1549
        • The war was becoming increasingly unpopular with the nobles and the general public
        • High levels of taxation were undermining the economy and provoking hostility
        • But Northumberland was dealing with gaining control of the government rather than trying to resolve these problems
      • France
        • France took advantage of the chaos in England and built up forces around Boulogne
          • An English fleet destroyed a strong force of French ships in the channel
            • Boulogne could be supplied by sea
              • But the government was nearly bankrupt and Northumberland could not raised an army to lift the seige
      • January 1550
        • A delegation was sent to negotiate a settlement
          • The Treaty of Boulogne was signed in March
            • England would withdraw in exchange for a ransom of 400,000 crowns
            • Also, England had to remove their garrisons in Scotland and only attack if provoked
            • A defensive alliance between France and England was also enacted
            • Boulogne was handed over in April
              • The English garrison was sent to Calais
              • Peace was restore but was unpopular
            • England's international position remained weak
              • Lack of money meant that the size of the army and navy had to be reduced
      • Holy Roman Empire
        • Improved relations with France made relations deteriorate with the HRE
          • Charles V did not like the fact that Edward wanted Mary to abandon her faith
            • There was a breakdown in commercial contrasts with the Netherlands that had been protected by the Intercursus Magnus 1496
              • In April 1550, Charles allowed the Catholic Inquisition to arrest heretics in the Netherlands. This outraged English merchants
                • The edict was modified to exclude foreigners but it brought about the collapse of the Antwerp cloth market because many Flemish workers went to England to avoid persecution
                  • In December 1550 Charles tried to restore trading relations but only did it because of the fear of England would be driven to a closer alliance with France
      • Scotland
        • Northumberland withdrew remaining English garrisons
          • Scottish novles and Protestant lowlanders were becoming hostile to the French
            • The fall of Somerset led to the confusion in Scotland
              • Northumberland made himself General Warden of the North
                • Minor disputes over land needed to be soved
                  • Robert Bowen ordered to survey the border
                    • Strongholds in Berwick and Carlisle were reinforced but progress was slow
                      • France landed troops and supplies in Feb 1551
                        • This kick started negotiations
                          • By March 1552 the border was returned to that before Henry VIII's Scottish campaigns
      • Continental Powers
        • Worsening relations with Charles V due to Protestantism of the English Church
          • When war broke out between Charles V and Henry II that relations began to improve
            • Northumberland resisted pressure from France to join the war against the HRE
              • Charles V became more relaxed over English trade with the Netherlands
                • In June 1552 diplomatic relations were restored between England and the HRE
                  • When the French invaded the Netherlands, Charles V reminded England that under treaty negotiations it was bound to assist the HRE if the Netherlands was attacked
                    • Calais was reinforced but England took no active part in the war
                      • The second part of the ransom for Boulogne was unpaid
                        • French privateers attacked English shipping
                          • England could not take military action but the French feared an Anglo Imperial alliance so they did not overly confort England
                            • In Jan 1553 Northumberland tried to act as a mediator between the 2 countries but it failed
                              • By June 1553 negotiations had collapsed and hostilities resumed
    • Fall of Northumberl-and
      • The death of Edward VI was the main cause
      • He knew Mary's succession would lead to his dismissal and probably his arrest
        • A plan was made to omit Mary and Elizabeth from the throne and put Lady Jane Grey, their 17 year old cousin, as the successor
          • The Devise was a document drawn up to do this
            • This may have been drawn up by Edward but Northumberland arranged the marriage between his son Guilford Dudley and the future Queen Jane
              • Many in the Privy Council were reluctant to accept it but gave the assent anyway
                • Edward died on July 6th, Jane was proclaimed Queen three days later but her rule lasted 9 days
                  • Northumberland's fellow councillors deserted him
                    • Underestimated his depth of unpopularity and the strength of support for Mary
                      • He was arrested and imprisoned before being executed in August 1553
                        • Lady Jane Grey was executed in Feb 1554

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