Microbiology 5-6

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Microbiology 5-6
    • methods to culture viruses
      • Cell cultures
      • living animals
    • Viruses
      • need other cells to multiply
      • bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) easier to grow
      • antibiotics don't work
        • have no metabolism
        • drugs would interfere with virus multiplication
          • would also affect host cells, so too toxic for use
      • very small
      • genetic information usually encoded as one linear or circular piece of DNA or RNA
        • Never both
      • protein coat surround the nucleic acid
      • uses cells synthesising machinery
      • types
        • polyhedral
        • helical
        • enveloped
        • bacteriophage
      • biosynthesis
        • use cells machinery
          • ribosomes
          • tRNAs
        • use cells raw materials
          • nucleotides
          • amino acids
          • energy
    • vaccination
      • attenuated (weakened)
      • inactivated (dead)
      • sub units, only antigens
      • conjugate vaccine
        • combination of protein and antigens
      • nucleic acid injection
    • prevention
      • antiviral drugs
      • change of attitudes
      • slaughter of infected animals
      • restrictions
      • control of vectors
    • Viral infection cycle (lytic cycle)
      • attachment
      • degradation of host DNA
      • synthesis of viral genome
      • self assembly
      • destroys host cell
      • viral DNA separate to host DNA
    • lysogenic cycle
      • attachment
      • viral DNA enters cell
      • viral DNA integrates with host DNA
      • integrated prophage replicated
      • doesn't kill host cell
      • latent virus
        • can initiate lytic cycle due to environmental factors
    • Fungi
      • what are they
        • eukaryotes
          • have membrane bound organelles and nucleus
        • can be
          • saprotrophs
            • eat dead organic matter
          • parasitic
            • obtain nutrients from other organisms
          • mutualistic
      • cytoplasmic streaming
        • unrestricyed and bidirectional flow of protoplasm through filaments
        • water, nutrients, molecular signals
        • enables communication and continuity
        • septal plugs can block septal pores if damaged
      • dimorphism
        • exhibit two forms
        • filamentous
        • yeast
      • asexual reproduction
        • hyphael fragmentation
        • production of spores
          • mitosis
          • condiospores and sporangiospores
        • Budding
      • adaptations
        • ph 5 optimum
        • resistant to osmotic pressure
          • grow in high salt/sugar
        • grow low moisture
        • less nitrogen
        • metabolise lichen
      • chytriodiomycota
        • zoospores ahve motility
        • live in water/soil
      • zygomycota
        • saprotrophs
        • sexual reproduction (zygosporangium)
        • asexual reproduction (sporangium)
      • ascomycota
        • asexual (condiospores)
      • basiodiomycota
        • saprotrophs
        • asexual production
      • uses
        • yeasts
          • baking and brewing
        • antibiotics
        • organic acids
        • steroids and hormones
        • cheeses
  • embryonated eggs
    • methods to culture viruses
      • Cell cultures
      • living animals
  • simple, small genome
    • Viruses
      • need other cells to multiply
      • bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) easier to grow
      • antibiotics don't work
        • have no metabolism
        • drugs would interfere with virus multiplication
          • would also affect host cells, so too toxic for use
      • very small
      • genetic information usually encoded as one linear or circular piece of DNA or RNA
        • Never both
      • protein coat surround the nucleic acid
      • uses cells synthesising machinery
      • types
        • polyhedral
        • helical
        • enveloped
        • bacteriophage
      • biosynthesis
        • use cells machinery
          • ribosomes
          • tRNAs
        • use cells raw materials
          • nucleotides
          • amino acids
          • energy
  • enzymes
    • injection of viral DNA/RNA
      • Viral infection cycle (lytic cycle)
        • attachment
        • degradation of host DNA
        • synthesis of viral genome
        • self assembly
        • destroys host cell
        • viral DNA separate to host DNA

    Comments

    No comments have yet been made

    Similar Biology resources:

    See all Biology resources »See all microbiology resources »