Microbiology 3-4

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  • Microbiology 3-4
    • Bacterial Shapes
      • coccobacillus (Oval)
      • cocci (circular)
      • staphylococci (bunch or grapes)
      • streptococci (line of grapes)
      • Comma (vibrios)
      • Spiral Few (spirillium)
      • Spiral many (spirochaetes)
    • Polymerase Chain Reaction
      • Amplifies DNA
      • Can detect bacteria from small samples
    • Growth
      • unicellular
      • multicellular
        • Growth in the individual
    • Binary Fission
      • chromosome division, cell lengthening
      • chromosome divided, cell lenghtened, ingrowth of envelope
      • cross wall completed
      • daughter cells separate
    • Bacterial Growth
      • Is logorithmic
        • Nox2n=N
      • Limiting factors
        • available nutrients
        • available space
        • growth inhibiting toxins
        • predation
        • competition
    • Measuring Growth
      • Directly
        • Counting the Cells
        • Microscope
          • without staining, can't differentiate living or dead cells
          • sample must be concentrated
          • no record for later studies
          • easy
          • suitable for non-culturable bacteria
          • rapid results
        • Flow cytometer
        • plate counts
          • detects viable bacteria
          • detects lower numbers
          • can be saved
          • time consuming
          • requires prior knowledge of the bacteria
          • slow
      • Indirectly
        • estimating numbers based on an indirect measurement of growth
        • optical density
          • Advantages
            • very rapid
            • simple
            • cheap
          • disadvantages
            • inaccurate
            • live and dead cells measured
            • not applicable for pigmented samples
            • dependent on cell size and pigmentation
        • dry weight
        • measuring respiration
    • Chimera
      • organism with tissues from two different ancestories
    • Protozoa
      • properties
        • eukaryotic
        • unicellular
        • no cell wall
        • chimera
        • microscopic
        • motile
      • slime moulds
        • eukaryotic cells resembling amoebae
        • aggregate into slug like colonies when nutrients are scarce
        • fungal and amoebael characteristics
        • Phagocytic
          • obtain nutrients by endocytosis
            • engulfing food
      • Many uncharacteristic traits of eukaryotes
      • earliest eukaryotes
      • most are chemoheterotrophs
        • obtain nutrients by breaking down complex organic compounds
    • evolution of Eukaryotes
      • membrane infolding
        • parts of the plasma membrane fold back into the cell
      • endosymbiosis
        • small prokaryotes engulfed by larger prokaryoyes
        • evolved into mitochondria and chloroplasts
  • Bacillus (Rod)
    • Bacterial Shapes
      • coccobacillus (Oval)
      • cocci (circular)
      • staphylococci (bunch or grapes)
      • streptococci (line of grapes)
      • Comma (vibrios)
      • Spiral Few (spirillium)
      • Spiral many (spirochaetes)
  • increase in number of cells or individuals
    • unicellular
  • Phases of growth
    • Bacterial Growth
      • Is logorithmic
        • Nox2n=N
      • Limiting factors
        • available nutrients
        • available space
        • growth inhibiting toxins
        • predation
        • competition
    • Lag Phase
      • Slow
      • Time to start cell functions
      • chemical composition of the cells necessary for growth established
    • Exponential Phase
      • Exponential Groth
      • Cells growing at the max rate
      • nutrients in excess
      • consume nutrients and release toxins, altering the growth environment
    • Stationary Phase
      • stable
      • some growth, some death
      • metabolites produced after active growth here e.g. antibiotics
      • sporulation can occur here
    • Death Phase
      • Population decreases
      • death>growth
  • nuclear envelope and organelle created this way
    • membrane infolding
      • parts of the plasma membrane fold back into the cell

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