Microbiology and Man

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  • Microbiology and Man
    • metabolism
      • respiration
        • krebs cycle
        • glycolysis
        • electron transport chain
          • redox reactions
      • anaerobic respiration
        • stops after glycolysis
      • fermentation
        • conversion of carbohydrates to acids and alcohols
    • oxygen
      • obligate aerobes
        • need oxygen
      • facultative aerobes
        • prefers anaerobic, but can use oxygen
      • obligate anaerobes
        • cannot survive in oxygen
      • facultative anaerobes
        • prefer aerobic, but can anaeobic
      • microaerophilic
        • requires oxygen, only tolerate small amounts
    • nutrient uptake
      • facilitated diffusion
        • passive pathway
          • diffusion
            • nutrient uptake
              • facilitated diffusion
                • passive pathway
                  • diffusion
                • active transport
                • phosphorus
                  • nucleic acids, phospholipids
                • sulphur
                  • amino acids, vitamins, enzymes
                • calcium
                  • stabilise cell walls
                • tungsten
                  • synthesis amino acids
        • active transport
        • phosphorus
          • nucleic acids, phospholipids
        • sulphur
          • amino acids, vitamins, enzymes
        • calcium
          • stabilise cell walls
        • tungsten
          • synthesis amino acids
      • waterborne diseases
        • sources
          • freshwater
          • seawater
        • routes of entry
          • gastrointestinal
          • skin
          • respiratory
        • cholera
          • vibrio cholerae
          • large dose needed
          • occurs in areas of poverty
          • diarrhoea
          • toxin acts on cells of gut lining
            • causes influx of water in lumen of gut
        • Typhoid Fever
          • salmonella typhi
          • person to person
          • fever, abdominal pain, headache, rash
        • Norwalk Virus
          • nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, cramps
          • common in UK
        • cryptosporidium parvum
          • caused by a protozoan parasite
          • highly infectious
          • abdominal pain, diarrhoea
          • most food safe
        • legionaire's disease
          • pneumonia caused by legionella pneumophilia
          • inhale air containing water droplets
        • leptospirosis
          • leptospira interrogans
          • animals excrete into water, bacteria enter through skin
          • influenza like
      • Foodborne diseases
        • factors
          • availability of nutrients
          • antimicrobial agents e.g. garlic
            • low water activity
            • resistance to decay
            • allicin
        • host defences
          • acidic conditions of gut
          • proteolytic enzymes
          • bile salts
          • rapid flow/turnover of material
          • natural microflora
        • bacillus cereus
          • enterotoxin causes vomiting
          • microorganism causes diarrhoea
    • pyruvate and NADH to lactic acid and NAD+
      • anaerobic respiration
        • stops after glycolysis
      • in plants, ethanol instead of lactic acid, and CO2

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