Microorganisms and food

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    • microorganisms e.g. bacteria, yeast and fungi can be used to make food
      • Yeast can be used to make bread which turns the sugar into ethanol and CO2
      • yeast can also be used to make wine by adding it to grape juice
      • bacteria can be used to make cheese and yogurt which turns milk into lactic acid
    • fungi can be used to make meat e.g. mycoprotein in quorn products
      • using fungi for meat substitution  can have its advantages
        • it can grow rapidly under the right conditions so food is produced quicker
        • their environment can be artificially controlled at any time of the year
        • using fungi means it can have longer shelf life
        • it also has less saturated fat than real meats
      • using fungi for meat substitution can have its disadvantages
        • there is a much higher risk of food contamination
        • a simple change in their environment can kill the fungi
        • its undesirable, people may not want to eat fungi
    • preventing food spoilage
      • SALTING - prevents spoilage by absorbing water
      • SUGARING - also absorbs water and provides longer shelf life
      • FREEZING - slows down reactions and freezes water
      • PICKLING - provides a lower pH for the food so enzyme activity is reduced
      • HEAT TREATMENT - pasteurisation is used to heat milk at high temperatures
      • IRRADIATION - X-rays and gamma rays kill microorganisms extends shelf life


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