memory errors and social influence

  • Created by: BKW
  • Created on: 20-05-19 10:56
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  • Memory errors related to social influence
    • misinformation
      • Loftus 1974 showed there is an indirect social component in memory
        • pps witnessed an event then asked a incorrectly suggestive question
          • eg "did the car stop at the stop sign?" it was infact a yield sign
    • social contagion by Roedigeer et al 2001
      • the social transmission of false memory
        • pps and confederate view 6 pics of house scene - for 2 scenes the confederate makes false recall
          • one group looked at scene for 15 secs, other group 60s
            • also manipulated semantic relatedness of item eg a wheelbarrow is likely to be in a garden scene not a photo frame.
              • found strong effect of social influence and more likely to conform when memory was weaker and probability of item being there is high
    • evolutionary explanation
      • it makes sense to rely on others for accurate info
      • Allan and Gabbert 2008 found little evidence long term social influence effects accuracy of memories BUT false memories tend to last longer
        • presented same house scene as Roediger but some confederates gave answers with confidence and some not so much - confidence has an effect
        • suggest a lack of social influence relates to attentional factors - false memories capture attention more
          • Discrepancy detection hypothesis = false memories stand out morebut not much more (they still need to be semantically related to event
    • Collaborative inhibition by Weldon and Bellinger 1997
      • does rememberinin groups = better performance in recall
        • Collaborative recall is better than individual memory BUT worse than nominal group recall
          • nominal recall/ collaboration inhibition is always best!
            • WHY?
              • SOCIAL LOAFING - people don't work as hard
              • not wanting to show off/ give others a chance
              • PRODUCTION BLOCKING -cant all recall at same time, while soeone else is recalling you are forgetting
    • Are memory errors adaptive
      • Schacter 1999 "memory is adapted to retaininfo that is most likely to be needed in environment that it operates"
        • so we forget things we don't need and persistence and memory is crucial for survival
    • Tim McVeigh 1995
      • carried out the Oklahoma city bombing
        • WITNESS1 claimed he saw 2 men, WITNESS 2 claimed he only saw 1 - after witness 2 came forward witness 1 changed his statement
    • Sherrif Autokinetic movement illusion
      • a stationary source of light in a room may be perceived to be moving
        • A confederate says dot was travelling long distance and pps would agree. this effect can last upto a year
    • Asch's conformity line exp
      • asked a group of pps - 1 niave pp and rest were confederates to match a line to 1/3 other lines
        • in 1st 2 trials confederate respnses were correct but in  a later trial they were clearly wrong
          • 75% of pps conformed in at least 1 incorrect trial, but when tested on their own after they were always correct
    • Normative influence
      • motivated by the need to be accepted by a group
        • influenced by size, attractivenessinterdependence of group
        • public conformity no private change
          • Aschs study
    • Informational influence
      • motivated by need to be accurate
        • public and private change
          • sheriffs study

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